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The second type of sapuyung is a ceremonial hat worn during specific ceremonies by the Ngaju, as, for example, during secondary burial rituals (tiwah).
The tombs also demonstrate that the population burying at Bab edh-Dhra' placed high value on burial as evident in the investment of precious resources: time and effort to carve the family tomb, high quality mortuary goods, and the demands attendant on a primary burial and retrieval of the bones for a secondary burial at another location (p.
It is not easy to judge whether or not the Pre-Roman Iron Age burials at Parnamagi represent the kindred descendants of the community that once built the graves and whether the graves served as their only, main or secondary burial ground.
The secondary burial practice restricts generalizing statements about the position of the dead because bones were found disarticulated.
At Gua Braholo a secondary burial at the same level as and probably broadly contemporary with a flexed burial consisted of unburnt bones in a pit at the base of which was ash and charcoal, a sample of which produced a [sup.
He next describes blontang funerary poles made for the kwangkai secondary burial ceremony.
Recent research at the late LBK Herxheim enclosure in Rhineland-Palatinate has, for instance, shown the secondary burial of parts of over 450 individuals in an enclosure ditch, associated with deposits of pottery and other material culture (Zeeb-Lanz et al.
A total of 25 burials have been excavated, the majority of which are primary interments, although there is also evidence of secondary burial.
From these sources, it emerges that a tomb containing unburned remains could result from a primary or secondary burial, and a tomb containing burned remains could result either from a primary burial where bones are left in place (a practice known as bustum) or from a secondary burial where burned bones are moved a distance from the pyre (known as ustrinum).
The secondary burial in SHII, N7 probably belonged to the Kypchak (Polovetskaya) culture which existed before or simultaneously with the Golden Horde period (Table 1).
Like Austen (1939), this seems to be based mostly on the presence of secondary burial material found in the collapse of some of the larger monuments.