of gnaphosids, the truncus, is probably a homologue of the same sclerites
in Pisauridae and also a homologue of the entire sclerite
III in the apical division of Liphistius (Kraus, 1978, 1984).
Dondersiidae comprises nine genera and 32 species (Table 1) on the basis of a thin cuticle without skeletal sclerites
or epidermal papillae (not unique to this family), and by varying combinations of characters: body with or without posterior end drawn out into fingerlike projection; with two or more types of raised (not adpressed) solid sclerites
or one type of adpressed scales; radula monostichous with two or more denticles per row, the central two fused or not fused distally, or radula lacking; ventrolateral foregut glands as groups of extraepithelial unicellular gland cells ("follicles") or as multicellular glands ("type A"); and with or without copulatory spicules.
20, the relationships of the genera in the clade are unresolved, except for Goja and Ianthorntonia; the clade is monophyletic, supported by two synapomorphies: endophallus radular or with sclerites
(5-1), and external parameres membranous or well defined projections (7-1).
in press) and the Early Cambrian Forteau Formation of western Newfoundland (Harvey 2010, and unpublished data) are less thermally altered and contain a greater variety of recoverable microfossils, including Little Bear-type remains of chancelloriid sclerites
and hyolithid helens.
2009b) has recently confirmed that the eunuch phenomenon typically entails initial sclerite
damaging during copulation, followed by voluntary post-copulation palpal removal, corroborating only two previous observations on Nephilengys (Robinson & Robinson 1980).
Four types of epibiotic and endocuticular bacteria on sclerites
and in body mantle cuticle have been demonstrated as symbionts in H.
It lacked sclerites
, but nevertheless had a complex shape, including a pair of rounded distal prominences.
of the isotelines are very abundant throughout the member, producing so-called trilobite cemeteries, similar to the lowest beds of the overlying Saka Member.
20) Basal sclerite
(R3), two states: present (0), absent (1).
Anterior arms of bridge sclerite
and distal lateral sclerites
of hypopharynx absent.
g Naskrecki 1995) refer to this too as a sclerotization of the ectophallic membrane, but to the present author it seems more likely that this is part of the epiphallic membrane, homologous with the post-epiphallic sclerites
of the Ommatolampinae (Carbonell et al.
Meso- and metathorax with yellowish sclerites
, membranes lighter.