Sandifer syndrome is a movement disorder that comprises gastroesophageal reflux, spasm in the head, neck, and trunk, and abnormal posture.
Refractory head movements secondary to Sandifer syndrome treated with enteral feeding.
Common non-epileptic paroxysmal events by age Newborn Infancy and game age Jitteriness Breath-holding spells Hyperekplexia Shuddering attacks Benign sleep myoclonus Stereotypes Benign paroxysmal torticollis Benign paroxysmal tonic upward gaze Benign paroxysmal vertigo Sleep disorders Masturbation Spasmus nutans Sandifer syndrome Tics Newborn Adolescent Jitteriness Syncope Hyperekplexia Sleep disorders Benign sleep myoclonus Psychogenic crises Tics Migraine Table 2.
Sandifer syndrome is a NEPD which is classicaly characterized with extension in the neck, bending of the head to one side and accompanying opistotonus.
A diagnosis of Sandifer syndrome was made with the present history and clinical and laboratory findings.
Although Sandifer syndrome was described in association with hiatus hernia initially, it is more frequently related with GER.
In a study in which 134 NEPD cases were evaluated, Sandifer syndrome was found in the etiology in four of a total of 26 infants (8).
Initially, the disturbance caused by the transfer of the gastric acid into the esophagus was blamed, but studies could not find a relation between the grade of reflu and the severity of Sandifer syndrome (9).
Sandifer syndrome is frequently associated with normal neurological examination especially in infants.
Sandifer syndrome may also be observed in individuals with metabolic disease or central nervous system disease.