# sampling error

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## sampling error

Surgical pathology An error in a diagnostic work-up, in which insufficient, inadequate, or non-representative material is obtained for analysis, especially biopsy material, less commonly, cytologic samplings

## sampling error

(in statistics) a statistical phenomenon in which the variation within a sample is inversely related to the size of the sample. In other words, the smaller the sample the larger the sample error. Thus if 100 people toss 10 coins each, the variation within each sample would be quite high, from perhaps 2 heads: 8 tails, to 8 heads: 2 tails. However, if the same 100 people toss 1000 coins each, the variation would be expected to be proportionately less, from perhaps 350 heads: 650 tails to 650 heads: 350 tails. The variation in a sample can be expressed as, for example, mean ± standard error.

## error

the wrong answer in an experiment or result to a questionnaire.

experimental error
of two types, errors of objectivity when the experimenter knows the groups and the expected result, and errors of detection or measurement due to inadequate technique or the uneven application of measuring techniques.
random error
error which occurs due to chance, such as sampling error.
sampling error
one due to the fact that the result obtained from a sample is only an estimate of that obtained from using the entire population.
systematic error
when the error is applied to all results, i.e. those due to bias.
error types I and II
in making a statistical test, you can reject the null hypothesis when it is true (type I) or accept the null hypothesis when it is false (type II).
References in periodicals archive ?
illustrates the differences among fact, belief, and sampling error probabilities.
Bulmer's R* test, designed to allow for sampling error, maintained a Type I error rate near or slightly less than the set nominal value of 5% for all simulations (Fig.
Salgado has noted that the values given for sampling error in our original article were incorrect.
The magnitude of sampling error of estimates of change depend in part on the proportion of households or persons included in the samples for both periods.
For results based on the sample of 1,448 30- to 49-year-olds, the margin of sampling error is A[+ or -]3 percentage points at the 95% confidence level.
For results based on the total sample of 802 non-Hispanic blacks, the maximum margin of sampling error is A[+ or -]5 percentage points.
In addition to sampling error, question wording and practical difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of public opinion polls.
With pure probability samples, with 100 percent response rates, it is possible to calculate the probability that the sampling error (but not other sources of error) is not greater than some number.
Those based on national adults aged 18 and older generally include more than 15,000 interviews per month and have a maximum margin of sampling error of 1 percentage point.
For results based on the total sample of 460 adults who oppose the government's raising the debt ceiling, one can say with 95% confidence that the maximum margin of sampling error is 6 percentage points.
For results based on the sample of 12,162 non-Hispanic whites, the maximum margin of sampling error is [+ or -]1 percentage points.

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