The time-period and the unionisation dummies are combined together in charts 5 and 6, with unionisation evaluated at its sample mean
In MLEF, an iterative optimization method is used to optimize a 3D-Var type of cost function, and the found optimum is used as the state estimate instead of the sample mean
The reciprocal of relMSE is the ratio of equivalent sample sizes in terms of accuracy from using MKF rather than the current-year mean, where the equivalent sample is the (effective) sample size required in the current year to yield the same accuracy with the sample mean
as the MKF applied to all years of data.
For example, among private institutions, Stanford University produces externally funded research at a level that is 16,937% of the sample mean
for private IHEs, and Brigham Young University produces undergraduate education at a level that is 2348% of the sample mean
for private IHEs.
showing that the two methods provide different estimates with the extent of the difference, depending upon the sizes of the strata, the sample sizes, and the estimates of the sample means
13) The message from Figure 1 is clear: low draws from the catastrophe loss distribution during a 25-year period, which produce a low sample variance and a low sample mean
for the catastrophe loss ratio, frequently give rise to R-squareds that substantially understate the population R-squared.
Perhaps the most revealing result of the opinions gathered on the effect of licensing and certification is that none of the sample means
indicate any substantive improvement as a result of this activity.
Tukey's procedure utilizes the Studentized range to determine whether the difference in any pair of sample means
implies a difference in the corresponding population means.
23) Note: Mean = sample mean
returns; Stdev = sample standard deviation; Skewness = Pearson's coefficient of skewness; Kurtosis = coefficient of kurtosis; P-runs = level of significance where the null hypothesis of random runs can be rejected; Beta = covariation between the stock index and the general index; Q-statistic = Q statistic for sixth-order (or less) autocorrelation of stock returns.
Since all independent variables (except carrier-specific dummy variables) are expressed as natural logarithms and deviated from their sample means
of the economic variables, the parameter estimates represent the cost elasticities at the sample mean
of those variables.
28, the magnitude of LIL's impacts is quite significant relative to the sample mean
Table 2: Differences between Immigrants and Natives in Coverage by Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Coverage, Selected Coefficients from Probit Regressions Using the 2001 SIPP, Adults Aged 18-64 % of Sample (1) (2) Coverage by employer insurance, all adults (N = 34,883) Sample mean