Salazopyrin


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sulfasalazine

APO Sulfasalazine (CA), Azulfidine, Azulfidine EN-tabs, PMS-Sulfasalazine (CA), PMS-Sulfasalazine-E.C. (CA), Salazopyrin (CA) (UK), Salazopyrin EN-Tabs (CA), SAS Tab (CA), Sulazine (UK), Sulfazine, Sulfazine EC

Pharmacologic class: Sulfonamide

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective, GI tract anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Unknown. Thought to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by interfering with secretions in colon and causing local anti-inflammatory action.

Availability

Tablets: 500 mg

Tablets (Azulfidine EN-tabs-delayed-release, enteric-coated): 500 mg

Indications and dosages

Ulcerative colitis

Adults: Initially, 1 to 2 g P.O. daily in equally divided doses q 6 to 8 hours, then 3 to 4 g P.O. daily in equally divided doses q 6 to 8 hours. For maintenance, 500 mg q 6 hours.

Children ages 6 and older: 40 to 60 mg/kg P.O. daily in three to six divided doses. For maintenance, 30 mg/kg P.O. q 6 hours in four divided doses.

Acute rheumatoid arthritis

Adults: Initially, 500 mg to 1 g (delayed-release) P.O. daily for 1 week; then increase by 500 mg/day P.O. q week up to 2 g/day in two divided doses. If no benefit after 12 weeks, increase to 3 g/day given in two divided doses.

Polyarticular-course juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

Children ages 6 and older: 30 to 50 mg/kg P.O. daily in two evenly divided doses. Maximum dosage is 2 g daily.

Off-label uses

• Ankylosing spondylitis
• Crohn's disease
• Psoriatic arthritis

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug, its metabolites, other sulfonamides, or salicylates
• Porphyria
• Urinary tract or intestinal obstruction

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• renal or hepatic disease, bronchial asthma, G6PD deficiency, group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, blood dyscrasias
• history of multiple allergies
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children younger than age 2.

Administration

• Give after meals and space doses evenly to reduce GI effects.
• Give with a full glass of water.
• Administer delayed-release tablets whole. Don't let patient crush or chew them.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, depression, hallucinations, insomnia, drowsiness, vertigo, fatigue, apathy, anxiety, ataxia, polyneuritis, peripheral neuropathy, seizures

CV: allergic myocarditis or pericarditis

EENT: periorbital edema, optic neuritis, transient myopia, tinnitus

GI: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, stomatitis, glossitis, pancreatitis, dry mouth, anorexia, pseudomembranous colitis

GU: hematuria, proteinuria, orange-yellow urine, reversible oligospermia, crystalluria, toxic nephrosis with oliguria and anuria, renal failure

Hematologic: megaloblastic anemia, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia

Hepatic: jaundice, hepatitis, hepato-cellular necrosis

Respiratory: shortness of breath, pleuritis, cyanosis, allergic pneumonitis, pulmonary infiltrates, fibrosing alveolitis

Skin: generalized skin eruption, urticaria, pruritus, alopecia, local irritation, orange-yellow skin discoloration, exfoliative dermatitis, photosensitivity reaction, erythema multiforme, epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Other: reversible immunoglobulin suppression, chills, drug fever, hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, serum sickness, lupuslike syndrome

Interactions

Drug-drug.Digoxin, folic acid: reduced absorption of these drugs

Drug-diagnostic tests.Bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, eosinophils, transaminases: increased levels

Granulocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, white blood cells: decreased levels

Urine glucose test: false-positive result

Drug-food.Folic acid: decreased folic acid absorption

Drug-herbs.Dong quai, St. John's wort: increased risk of photosensitivity

Drug-behaviors.Sun exposure: increased risk of photosensitivity

Patient monitoring

Monitor CBC with white cell differential. Watch for evidence of blood dyscrasias.

Stay alert for signs of erythema multiforme. Report early signs before condition can progress to Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
• Monitor patient for signs and symptoms of superinfection, including fever, tachycardia, and chills.

Monitor liver function tests; watch for signs and symptoms of hepatitis.

Check kidney function tests weekly. Evaluate patient's fluid intake, urine output, and urine pH. Report hematuria, oliguria, or anuria right away.
• Monitor neurologic status. Report seizures, hallucinations, or depression.
• If patient takes drug for rheumatoid arthritis, monitor therapeutic response 4 to 12 weeks after therapy begins.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient to take on regular schedule as prescribed, along with a full glass of water. Instruct him to drink plenty of fluids to minimize crystal formation in urine.
• Urge patient to complete full course of treatment, even if he feels better after a few days.

Instruct patient to watch for and immediately report signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reaction, especially rash.

Tell patient drug can cause blood disorders, GI and liver problems, serious skin reactions, and other infections. Describe key warning signs and symptoms (easy bruising or bleeding, severe diarrhea, unusual tiredness, yellowing of skin or eyes, sore throat, rash, cough, mouth sores, fever). Instruct him to report these right away.

Advise patient to promptly report scant or bloody urine or inability to urinate.
• Instruct patient to contact prescriber if he develops depression.
• Teach patient effective ways to counteract photosensitivity effect. Tell him that dong quai and St. John's wort increase phototoxicity risk and should be avoided during therapy.
• Inform patient that drug may discolor skin and body fluids orange-yellow and may permanently stain contact lenses.
• Advise female patient to inform pre-scriber if she is pregnant. Caution her not to take drug near term or when breastfeeding.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

sulfaSALAzine

(sul-fa-sal-a-zeen) ,

Azulfidine

(trade name),

Azulfidine EN-tabs

(trade name),

Salazopyrin

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: antirheumatics
Pregnancy Category: B

Indications

Mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis or as adjunctive therapy in severe ulcerative colitis.Rheumatoid arthritis unresponsive or intolerant tosalicylates and/or NSAIDs.

Action

Locally acting anti-inflammatory action in the colon, where activity is probably a result of inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.

Therapeutic effects

Reduction in the symptoms of ulcerative colitis or rheumatoid arthritis.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: 10–15% absorbed after oral administration.
Distribution: Widely distributed; crosses the placenta and enters breast milk.
Protein Binding: 99%.
Metabolism and Excretion: Split by intestinal bacteria into sulfapyridine and 5-aminosalicylic acid. Some absorbed sulfasalazine is excreted by bile back into intestines; 15% excreted unchanged by the kidneys. Sulfapyridine also excreted mostly by the kidneys.
Half-life: 6 hr.

Time/action profile (blood levels)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
PO1 hr1.5–6 hr6–12 hr

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity reactions to sulfonamides, salicylates, or sulfasalazine;Cross-sensitivity with furosemide, sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents, or carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may exist;Glucose-6–phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency;Hypersensitivity to bisulfites (mesalamine enema only);Urinary tract or intestinal obstruction;Porphyria; Pediatric: Children <2 yr (safety not established).
Use Cautiously in: Severe hepatic or renal impairment;History of porphyria;Blood dyscrasias; Obstetric: Neural tube defects have been reported; Lactation: Safety not established; may compete with bilirubin for binding sites on plasma proteins in the newborn and cause kernicterus; bloody stools or diarrhea reported in breast-fed infants.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • headache (most frequent)

Respiratory

  • pneumonitis

Gastrointestinal

  • anorexia (most frequent)
  • diarrhea (most frequent)
  • nausea (most frequent)
  • vomiting (most frequent)
  • drug-induced hepatitis

Genitourinary

  • crystalluria
  • infertility
  • oligospermia
  • orange-yellow discoloration of urine

Dermatologic

  • exfoliative dermatitis (life-threatening)
  • stevens-johnson syndrome (life-threatening)
  • toxic epidermal necrolysis (life-threatening)
  • rash (most frequent)
  • photosensitivity
  • yellow discoloration

Hematologic

  • agranulocytosis (life-threatening)
  • aplastic anemia (life-threatening)
  • blood dyscrasias
  • eosinophilia
  • hemolytic anemia
  • megaloblastic anemia
  • thrombocytopenia

Neurologic

  • peripheral neuropathy

Miscellaneous

  • angioedema (life-threatening)
  • hypersensitivity reactions including:
  • anaphylaxis (life-threatening)
  • fever (most frequent)

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

May ↑ action/risk of toxicity from oral hypoglycemic agents, phenytoin, methotrexate, zidovudine, or warfarin.↑ risk of drug-induced hepatitis with other hepatotoxic agents.↑ risk of crystalluria with methenamine.May ↓ metabolism and increase effects/toxicity of mercaptopurine or thioguanine.May ↓ iron and folic acid absorption.

Route/Dosage

Ulcerative Colitis

Oral (Adults) 1 g q 6–8 hr (may start with 500 mg q 6–12 hr), followed by maintenance dose of 500 mg q 6 hr.
Oral (Children >2 yr) Initial—6.7–10 mg/kg q 4 hr or 10–15 mg/kg q 6 hr or 13.3–20 mg/kg q 8 hr. Maintenance—7.5 mg/kg q 6 hr (not to exceed 2 g/day).

Rheumatoid arthritis

Oral (Adults) 500 mg–1 g/day (as delayed-release tablets) for 1 wk, then ↑ by 500 mg/day q wk up to 2 g/day in 2 divided doses; if no benefit seen after 12 wk, ↑ to 3 g/day in 2 divided doses.
Oral (Children ≥6 yr) 30–50 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses (as delayed-release tablets); initiate therapy at ¼–⅓ of planned maintenance dose and ↑ q 7 days until maintenance dose is reached (not to exceed 2 g/day).

Availability (generic available)

Tablets: 500 mg
Delayed-release (enteric-coated) tablets (Azulfidine EN-tabs): 500 mg

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess patient for allergy to sulfonamides and salicylates. Therapy should be discontinued if rash, difficulty breathing, swelling of face or lips, or fever occur.
  • Monitor intake and output ratios. Fluid intake should be sufficient to maintain a urine output of at least 1200–1500 mL daily to prevent crystalluria and stone formation.
  • Assess for rash periodically during therapy. May cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Discontinue therapy if severe or if accompanied with fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions, conjunctivitis, hepatitis, and/or eosinophilia.
  • Ulcerative Colitis: Assess abdominal pain and frequency, quantity, and consistency of stools at the beginning of and during therapy.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: Assess range of motion and degree of swelling and pain in affected joints before and periodically during therapy.
  • Lab Test Considerations: Monitor urinalysis, BUN, and serum creatinine before and periodically during therapy. May cause crystalluria and urinary cell calculi formation.
  • Lab Test Considerations: Monitor CBC with differential and liver function tests before and every second wk during first 3 mo of therapy, monthly during the second 3 mo, and every 3 mo thereafter of as clinically indicated Discontinue sulfasalazine if blood dyscrasias occur.
  • Lab Test Considerations: Serum sulfapyridine levels may be monitored; concentrations >50 μg/mL may be associated with increased incidence of adverse reactions.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Acute pain (Indications)
Diarrhea (Indications)

Implementation

  • Do not confuse sulfasalazine with sulfadiazine.
    • Varying dosing regimens of sulfasalazine may be used to minimize GI side effects.
  • Oral: Administer after meals or with food to minimize GI irritation, with a full glass of water. Do not crush or chew enteric-coated tablets.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient on the correct method of administration. Advise patient to take medication as directed, even if feeling better. Take missed doses as soon as remembered unless almost time for next dose.
  • May cause dizziness. Caution patient to avoid driving or other activities that require alertness until response to medication is known.
  • Advise patient to notify health care professional if skin rash, sore throat, fever, mouth sores, unusual bleeding or bruising, wheezing, fever, or hives occur.
  • Caution patient to use sunscreen and protective clothing to prevent photosensitivity reactions.
  • Inform patient that this medication may cause orange-yellow discoloration of urine and skin, which is not significant. May permanently stain contact lenses yellow.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional if symptoms worsen or do not improve. If symptoms of acute intolerance (cramping, acute abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, fever, headache, rash) occur, discontinue therapy and notify health care professional immediately.
  • Inform male patient that sulfasalazine may cause infertility.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional if symptoms do not improve after 1–2 mo of therapy.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decrease in diarrhea and abdominal pain.
  • Return to normal bowel pattern in patients with ulcerative colitis. Effects may be seen within 3–21 days. The usual course of therapy is 3–6 wk.
  • Maintenance of remission in patients with ulcerative colitis.
  • Decrease in pain and inflammation and increase in mobility in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Salazopyrin

A brand name for the drug SULPHASALAZINE used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, ULCERATIVE COLITIS and CROHN'S DISEASE.
References in periodicals archive ?
A bland diet often helps to control the problem but in more persistent cases a long course of treatment with the drug salazopyrin can be given.
She has tried salazopyrin, quinine sulphate, calcium lactate, distalgesic and also a herbal treatment.
In addition to Camptosar and Xalatan, prescription products contributing to third quarter growth include the anti-thrombotic medicine Fragmin (+19%), the cancer product Pharmorubicin (+12%), the erectile dysfunction product Caverject (+48%), Salazopyrin for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases and rheumatoid arthritis (+15%), and the anti-anxiety agent Xanax (+16% on strong performance outside the United States).