SUMO4

SUMO4

A gene on chromosome 6q25 that encodes a ubiquitin-like protein which can be covalently attached to target lysines. In response to oxidative stress, SUMO4 binds anti-oxidant enzymes, chaperones and stress-defence proteins (e.g., NFKBIA, TFAP2A and FOS), downregulating their transcription; it can also bind to others (e.g., NR3C1), upregulating them.
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Besides these well-established non-HLA loci, a number of other associations with T1D have been reported for IL2RA/CD25 (52, 53), SUMO4 (small ubiquitinlike modifier 4) (54) and IFIH1 (55, 56).
A functional variant of SUMO4, a new I kappa B alpha modifier, is associated with type 1 diabetes.