SMAD3

SMAD3

A gene on chromosome 15q22.33 that encodes a SMAD family protein, named for their similarity to the Drosophila gene Mothers Against Decapentaplegic (MAD), which are signal transducers and transcription modulators of multiple signalling pathways. SMAD3 mediates the signal of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and thus regulates multiple cellular processes—e.g., cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. SMAD3 binds to TRE in the promoter of many genes regulated by TGF-beta and forms a complex with SMAD4, resulting in transcription regulation.
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What's more, SMAD3 activation by antipsychotics was completely independent from their neurological effects, raising the possibility that antipsychotics could be designed that retain beneficial therapeutic effects in the brain, but lack the negative metabolic side effects.
The mutated tumor suppressor gene MEN1 encodes a nuclear protein, menin, whose function it is to interact with SMAD3 to suppress transforming growth factor [beta].
33 SMAD3 rs17228212 CAD 16q23 NA rs8055236 early-onset 19p13 LDLR rs1122608 myocardial infarction CAD 19q12 NA rs7250581 early-onset 21q22 SLC5A3-MRPS6- rs9982601 myocardial KCNE2 infarction CAD 22q12 NA rs688034 Phenotype Risk Allele P-value Odds ratio Frequency CAD 0.
This volume is divided into three parts, with the first part consisting of 17 chapters on transforming growth factor [Beta], or TGF[Beta], in developing and advanced cancers, with chapter topics that include the role of TGF[Beta] in osteolytic bone metastases, TGF[Beta] and progression of esophageal cancer, and key roles of TGF[Beta] and Smad3 in prostate cancer.
They found that the microRNA matched up with parts of two genes called TGF-beta and SMAD3.
Both SMAD2 and SMAD3 mediate activin-stimulated expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone [beta] subunit in mouse gonadotrope cells," Molecular Endocrinology 18(3): 606-623.
Methods: TGF-[beta]1 and atrogin-1 expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR and/or ELISA; Smad3 phosphorylation by western blot; Smad4 nuclear translocation by indirect immunofluorescence; and ROS levels by DCF probe fluorescent measurements.
The key to their findings lies with a protein known as SMAD3 and the rate at which it is produced.
The IL-11 gene is essential to normal bone development and the SMAD3 gene is made active by a growth factor involved with height.
On transforming growth factor [beta]/activin receptor activation, SMAD2 and SMAD3 proteins are phosphorylated and heterodimerize with the SMAD4 protein.
Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 were used as receptors and intracellular signal-transducing proteins by TGF-[beta] to regulate extracellular matrix homeostasis, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and others (Lawrence, 1996; ten Dijke et al.