indicates simian immunodeficiency virus; PCP, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; LPD, lymphoproliferative disease; and CMV, cytomegalovirus.
For the validation of the HIV/SIV
xMAP assay, we used 142 well-characterized samples from our NHP reference panel in which SIV
infection was either confirmed or ruled out by highly sensitive PCR approaches, and for which sufficient plasma was available (14,15).
Intranasal immunization with SIV
virus-like particles (VLPs) elicit systemic and mucosa| immunity.
A prior study from the same UCSF team discovered that SIV
infection causes a normally protective immune response to infection to go awry, leading to reduction in the protective activity in the gut of these Th17 cells and weakening of mucosal defenses against bacteria.
A representative of the 2007-08 seasonal influenza virus was included in the assay and had 73% and 74% identity in HA1 proteins compared with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and SIV
(A/Luxembourg/572/2008 HA gene, accession no.
First, a total of 38 sooty mangabeys were studied; 20 chronically infected by SIV
and 13 uninfected.
In at least one animal that SIV
naturally infects, the sooty mangabey, it causes a very high viral load with little immune response, but does not hurt the animal.
In a separate study designed to examine the prevalence of SIV
in the wild, University of Alabama at Birmingham scientists following a troop of sooty mangabeys in Cameroon found that 64 percent of the monkeys were infected.
He believed that a team led by biologist Hilary Koprowski used the kidneys of chimpanzees which contained the SIV
In this prophylactic non human primate study, two out of five monkeys immunized with the vaccine were able to "functionally cure," or fully control and suppress viral replication over time after challenge with a highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV
), and have shown stable or increased CD4 counts compared to pre-challenge baselines Additionally, the death of several monkeys in the control, unvaccinated group showed that VRX1116-based vaccination was capable of conferring a survival benefit following SIV
GM-CSF is a normal protein that promotes the initiation of immune responses and thus enhances the ability of the vaccine to elicit blocking antibodies for the SIV
virus before it enters cells.
In nonhuman primates, the GM-CSF enhanced vaccine achieved protection against SIV
in 70% of the animals.