gallop

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Related to S4 gallop: atrial gallop, S3 gallop

rhythm

 [rith´m]
a measured movement; the recurrence of an action or function at regular intervals. adj., adj rhyth´mic, rhyth´�mical.
accelerated idiojunctional rhythm a junctional rhythm, without retrograde conduction to the atria, at a rate exceeding the normal firing rate of the junction; it is an ectopic rhythm located in the bundle of His and controlling ventricles at a rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
accelerated idioventricular rhythm a rhythm of ectopic ventricular origin, faster than the normal rate of the His-Purkinje system but slower than 100 beats per minute, without retrograde conduction to the atria.
accelerated junctional rhythm a rhythm emanating from a focus in the AV junction at a rate greater than its normal rate of 60 but less than 100 beats per minute; it may be due to altered automaticity secondary to disease or to triggered activity secondary to digitalis toxicity. There may or may not be retrograde conduction to the atria.
alpha rhythm uniform rhythm of waves in the normal electroencephalogram, showing an average frequency of 10 per second, typical of a normal person awake in a quiet resting state. Called also Berger rhythm. See also electroencephalography.
atrioventricular junctional rhythm a junctional rhythm originating in the bundle of His, with a heart rate of 40 to 60 beats per minute; called also nodal rhythm.
automatic rhythm spontaneous rhythms initiated by the sinoatrial node, or by subsidiary atrial or ventricular pacemakers; in practice this refers to a normal sinus rhythm at a rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
Berger rhythm alpha rhythm.
beta rhythm a rhythm in the electroencephalogram consisting of waves smaller than those of the alpha rhythm, having an average frequency of 25 per second, typical during periods of intense activity of the nervous system. See also electroencephalography.
biological r's the cyclic changes that occur in physiological processes of living organisms; these rhythms are so persistent in nature that they probably should be considered a fundamental characteristic of life, as are growth, reproduction, metabolism, and irritability. Many of the physiological processes that recur in humans about every 24 hours (with circadian rhythm) have been known for centuries. Examples include the peaks and troughs seen in body temperature, vital signs, brain function, and muscular activity. Biochemical analyses of urine, blood enzymes, and plasma serum also have demonstrated circadian rhythms. Called also biorhythms.



It has long been believed that the cyclic changes observed in plants and animals were totally in response to environmental changes and, as such, were exogenous or of external origin. This hypothesis has now been rejected by most chronobiologists, who hold that the biological rhythms are intrinsic to the organisms, and that the organisms possess their own physiological mechanism for keeping time. This mechanism has been called the “biological clock.” An example of adjustment of the biological clock in humans is recovery from “jet lag.” This phenomenon, also known as jet syndrome, occurs when humans are transported by jet plane across time zones. It is characterized by fatigue and lowered efficiency, which persist until the biological clock adjusts to the new environmental cycle.

Biological rhythms are responsive to, or synchronous with, environmental cycles, but it is generally agreed among chronobiologists that the rhythmic changes in environmental factors do not create biological rhythms, even though they are capable of influencing them. Even in the absence of such environmental stimuli as light, darkness, temperature, gravity, and electromagnetic field, biological rhythms continue to maintain their cyclic nature for a period of time.
circadian rhythm the regular recurrence in cycles of about 24 hours from one point to another, such as certain biological activities that do this regardless of long periods of darkness or other changes in environmental conditions.
circamensual rhythm recurrence in cycles of about one month (30 days).
circannual rhythm recurrence of a phenomenon in cycles of about one year.
circaseptan rhythm that which occurs in cycles of about seven days (one week).
coupled rhythm heart beats occurring in pairs, the second beat of the pair usually being a ventricular premature beat.
delta rhythm
1. electroencephalographic waves having a frequency below 3½ per second, typical in deep sleep, in infancy, and in serious brain disorders. See also electroencephalography.
2. delta waves.
escape rhythm a heart rhythm initiated by lower centers when the sinoatrial node fails to initiate impulses, its rhythmicity is depressed, or its impulses are completely blocked.
gallop rhythm an auscultatory finding of three or four heart sounds, created by gushes of blood entering resistant or stiffened ventricles. This can happen at two different times during ventricular diastole: either at initial filling or at the time of ventricular contraction. Therefore, gallops occur during early and late ventricular diastole.
gamma rhythm a rhythm in the waves in the electroencephalogram having a frequency of 50 per second. See also electroencephalography.
idiojunctional rhythm a rhythm emanating from the atrioventricular junction but without retrograde conduction to the atria.
infradian rhythm the regular recurrence in cycles of more than 24 hours, as certain biological activities which occur at such intervals, regardless of conditions of illumination or other environmental conditions.
junctional rhythm an arrhythmia caused by an abnormality in the atrioventricular junction; see accelerated junctional rhythm and atrioventricular junctional rhythm.
rhythm method old popular name for natural family planning.
nyctohemeral rhythm a day and night rhythm.
pendulum rhythm alternation in the rhythm of the heart sounds in which the diastolic sound is equal in time, character, and loudness to the systolic sound, the beat of the heart resembling the tick of a watch.
sinus rhythm normal heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node, with a normal rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
theta rhythm electroencephalographic waves having a frequency of 4 to 7 per second, occurring mainly in children but also in adults under emotional stress. See also electroencephalography.
ultradian rhythm the regular recurrence in cycles of less than 24 hours, as certain biological activities which occur at such intervals, regardless of conditions of illumination or other environmental conditions.
ventricular rhythm the ventricular contractions which occur in cases of complete heart block.

gal·lop

(gal'ŏp),
A triple cadence to the heart sounds; due to an abnormal third or fourth heart sound being heard in addition to the first and second sounds, and usually indicative of serious disease.

gallop

/gal·lop/ (gal´op) a disordered rhythm of the heart; see also under rhythm.
atrial gallop  S
diastolic gallop  S
presystolic gallop  S
S3 gallop  an accentuated third heart sound in patients with cardiac disease characterized by pathological alterations in ventricular filling in early diastole.
S4 gallop  an accentuated, audible fourth heart sound usually associated with cardiac disease, often that with altered ventricular compliance.
summation gallop  one in which the third and fourth sounds are superimposed, appearing as one loud sound; usually associated with cardiac disease.
ventricular gallop  S

gallop

(găl′əp)
n.
1.
a. A gait of a horse, faster than a canter, in which all four feet are off the ground at the same time during each stride.
b. A fast running motion of other quadrupeds.
2. Medicine A disordered rhythm of the heart characterized by three or four distinct heart sounds in each cycle and resembling the sound of a galloping horse. Also called gallop rhythm.
v. gal·loped, gal·loping, gal·lops
v.tr.
To cause to gallop.
v.intr.
To go or move at a gallop.

gal′lop·er n.

gallop

[gal′əp]
Etymology: Fr, galop
a third or fourth heart sound, which at certain heart rates sometimes sounds like the gait of a horse. Also called gallop rhythm. See also S3, S4, summation gallop.
Cardiac auscultatory phenomena characterised by a tripling or quadrupling of heart sounds, likened to a horse’s canter; gallops may be the first sign of cardiac disease, but are often unrecognized, misinterpreted or ignored; gallops occur in diastole, and are separated by the phase in which they occur; ventricular—S3—or protodiastolic gallop follows normal 1st and 2nd heart sounds, occurs in early diastole coinciding with rapid ventricular filling, and causes high-pitched vibrations of the ventricular wall as the blood is abruptly stopped; it connotes serious heart disease or decompensation and is associated with coronary, hypertensive, rheumatic, and congenital cardiac disease; it may be normal in young adults; once diagnosed, the average ventricular ‘galloper’ survives 4-5 years; the atrial—S4—gallop occurs during presystole or atrial systole, and is typical of left ventricular hypertrophy or ischemia; if ventricular failure accompanies ventricular hypertrophy, an S3 gallop may also be heard; the S4 gallop may occur in absence of cardiac decompensation or in 1º myocardial disease, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and severe valvular stenosis, accompanied by an increased P-Q interval; if the P-R interval is prolonged or the heart rate sufficiently rapid, S3 and S4 merge, resulting in a ‘summation’ gallop

gallop

Cardiology Cardiac auscultatory phenomena cvharacterized by a tripling or quadrupling of heart sounds, likened to a horse's canter; gallops may be the first sign of cardiac disease, but are often unrecognized, misinterpreted or ignored; gallops occur in diastole, and separated by the phase in which they occur; ventricular–S3 or protodiastolic gallop follows normal 1st and 2nd heart sounds, occurs in early diastole coinciding with rapid ventricular filling, and causes high-pitched vibrations of the ventricular wall as the blood is abruptly stopped; it connotes serious heart disease or decompensation and is associated with coronary, hypertensive, rheumatic, and congenital cardiac disease; it may be normal in young adults; once diagnosed, the average ventricular 'galloper' survives 4-5 yrs; the atrial–S4 gallop occurs during presystole or atrial systole, and is typical of left ventricular hypertrophy or ischemia; if ventricular failure accompanies ventricular hypertrophy, an S3 gallop may also be heard; the S4 gallop may occur in absence of cardiac decompensation or in 1º myocardial disease, coronary artery disease, HTN, and severe valvular stenosis, accompanied by an ↑ P-Q interval; if the P-R interval is prolonged or the heart rate sufficiently rapid S3 and S4 merge resulting in a 'summation' gallop. See S3 gallop, Summation gallop.

gal·lop

, gallop rhythm (gal'ŏp, ridh'ŭm)
A triple cadence to the heart sounds due to an abnormal third or fourth heart sound being heard in addition to the first and second sounds; sometimes indicative of serious disease.
Synonym(s): cantering rhythm, Traube bruit.

Traube,

Ludwig, German physician and pathologist, 1818-1876.
Traube bruit - a triple cadence to the heart sounds at rates of 100 beats per minute or more, usually indicative of serious disease. Synonym(s): gallop
Traube corpuscle - a hypochromic, crescent-shaped erythrocyte, probably resulting from artifactual rupture of a red cell with loss of hemoglobin. Synonym(s): achromocyte
Traube double tone - a double sound heard on auscultation over the femoral vessels in cases of aortic and tricuspid insufficiency.
Traube dyspnea - obsolete term for inspiratory dyspnea with maximal expansion of the chest and a slow respiratory rhythm.
Traube plugs - Synonym(s): Dittrich plugs
Traube semilunar space - a crescentic space about 12 cm wide, just above the costal margin.
Traube sign - a double sound or murmur heard in auscultation over arteries in significant aortic regurgitation.
Traube-Hering curves - rhythmical variations in blood pressure. Synonym(s): Traube-Hering waves
Traube-Hering waves - Synonym(s): Traube-Hering curves

gallop

1. a disordered rhythm of the heart. See also gallop rhythm.
2. the horse's fastest gait. All four hooves are off the ground at the one time and the rhythm is one of four beats. The sequence of contact by the hooves is near hind, off hind, near fore, then off fore (when the off fore is the leading limb).

diastolic gallop
see gallop rhythm.