S100A4

S100A4

A gene on chromosome 1q21 that encodes a member of the S100 family of proteins, which have 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localised in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells; they are involved in regulating cell cycle progression and differentiation and other intracellular activities. The S100A4-encoded protein is thought to play a role in motility, invasion and tubulin polymerisation.
 
Molecular pathology
S100A4 rearrangements have been implicated in tumour metastasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Confirmation of differential expression of S100A4 and RPSA
Both S100A4 and RPSA are known to promote metastasis given that there are positive correlations between increased expressions of these proteins and the metastatic potential of tumour cells (Garrett et al.
They found that the protein S100A4 plays a crucial role in brain protection and repair.
The Danish scientists are confident they can effectively turn the "previously underrated" S100A4 from a tumour-promoter into a multi-functioning -protein, which provides a "therapeutic" effect on the central nervous system.
Significance of S100A4 as a prognostic marker of lung squamous cell carcinoma.
In the second study, S100A4 mRNA levels in blood were used to help diagnose patients with colon, rectal and gastric cancers.
There was no interference/cross-reactivity by the other 5100 proteins tested, including S100A6 and S100A4, which are highly expressed in brain tissue.
In addition, treatment led to a decrease in dermal thickness and suppression of keratinocyte peptides, including S100A4, S100A7a, and Defensin 4, compared to untreated mice.
S100A4 is linked with hypomethylation at specific CpG sites within the first intron and is associated with protein overexpression.
Primary tumours contain fibroblasts/myofibroblasts (carcinoma-associated fibroblasts; CAFs) which are routinely identified by markers such as alpha-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, S100A4 protein/fibroblast specific protein-1 and type I collagen.
Prof Stein and her team looked for the existence of an S100A4 transcript [2], by isolating RNA from blood plasma samples from patient with GI tumours.
However, in their study, only S100A4 expression correlated with the ability to form liver metastases, as evaluated in a quantitative model of metastasis in NOG (NOD/Shi-scid IL2r [gamma] null) mice.