ribosome

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Related to Ribosomes: endoplasmic reticulum

ribosome

 [ri´bo-sōm]
any of the intracellular ribonucleoprotein organelles concerned with protein synthesis, found either bound to cell membranes or free in the cytoplasm. They may occur singly or in clusters (polyribosomes). The genetic code is translated when ribosomes attach to messenger RNA.

ri·bo·some

(rī'bō-sōm),
A granule of ribonucleoprotein, 120-200 Ǻ in diameter, that is the site of protein synthesis from aminoacyl-tRNAs as directed by mRNAs.
Synonym(s): Palade granule

ribosome

/ri·bo·some/ (ri´bo-sōm) any of the intracellular ribonucleoprotein particles concerned with protein synthesis; they consist of reversibly dissociable units and are found either bound to cell membranes or free in the cytoplasm. They may occur singly or occur in clusters (polyribosomes).riboso´mal

ribosome

(rī′bə-sōm′)
n.
A structure composed of RNA and protein, present in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells and serving as the site for assembly of polypeptides encoded by messenger RNA.

ri′bo·so′mal (-sō′məl) adj.

ribosome

[rī′bəsōm]
Etymology: ribose + Gk, soma, body
an organelle composed of RNA and protein that functions in the synthesis of protein. Ribosomes interact with messenger RNA and transfer RNA to link amino acid into a polypeptide chain in a sequence determined by the sequence of nucleotides in the messenger RNA. Ribosomes may exist singly, in clusters as polysomes, or attached to the "rough" endoplasmic reticulum. See also translation.
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Ribosome

ri·bo·some

(rī'bŏ-sōm)
A granule of ribonucleoprotein, 120-150 Å in diameter, which is the site of protein synthesis from aminoacyl-tRNAs as directed by mRNAs.

ribosome

A spherical cell ORGANELLE made of RNA and protein which is the site of protein synthesis in the cell by linking amino acids into chains. Ribosomes may be free or may be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. During translation, ribosomes attach to MESSENGER RNA molecules and travel along them, synthesizing polypeptides as they go.

ribosome

a small particle (not an ORGANELLE) found in the cytoplasm of all cells, composed of protein and RIBOSOMAL RNA. Each ribosome is composed of two subunits of different sizes which sediment at different rates during centrifugation (see ULTRACENTRIFUGE). PROKARYOTES have ribosome with 70 S size and mass; EUKARYOTES have larger ribosomes with 80 S size and mass. Ribosomes bind to the 5′ end of MESSENGER RNA (see POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAIN) and travel towards the 3′ end, with TRANSLATION and POLYPEPTIDE synthesis occurring as they go along. Frequently several ribosomes are attached to one piece of mRNA, forming a POLYRIBOSOME.

Palade,

George Emil, Romanian-U.S. cell biologist and Nobel laureate, 1912–.
Palade granule - a granule of ribonucleoprotein, the site of protein synthesis from aminoacyl-tRNAs as directed by mRNAs. Synonym(s): ribosome
Weibel-Palade bodies - see under Weibel

ribosome

cell organelle; granule formed of ribonucleoprotein; site of protein synthesis, under influence of nuclear m-RNA

ribosome

ribonucleoprotein particles concerned with protein synthesis; they consist of two, one large and one small, reversibly dissociable units (called also 50S and 30S subunits) that are found either bound to cell membranes, particularly rough endoplasmic reticulum, or free in the cytoplasm. They may occur singly or in clusters, called polyribosomes or polysomes, which are ribosomes linked by mRNA and are actively engaged in protein synthesis.

ribosome binding site
a nucleotide sequence near the 5′ terminus of mRNA required for binding of mRNA to the small ribosomal subunit. Called also Shine-Dalgarno sequence.
References in periodicals archive ?
This oak wood extract provides support for ribosomes, the tiny cellular factories responsible for accurately producing structural and functional proteins everywhere in the body.
In some cells the cytoplasm became electron-lucent devoid of ribosomes and displayed dense bodies and membrane whorls (Fig.
mRNA moves out of the nucleus of the cell to a free ribosome in the cytoplasm to begin the process of protein synthesis.
The enzymes that copy DNA to RNA and vice versa can't tell the difference between the two components, but the subtle chemical tweak--akin to writing a letter in a hard-to-read, byzantine font--relays an entirely different meaning to the ribosome, the researchers suggest.
We got interested in ribosomes to understand how genetic information is used to make a wide variety of proteins as a fundamental problem in biology.
The academy said many of today's antibiotics cure various diseases by blocking the function of bacterial ribosomes.
A class of broad-spectrum novel ribosome inhibitors (NRI) has been found that shut down bacterial protein synthesis.
Our technique can be used for studying the functions of antibiotics on ribosomes from bacteria that can be used as potential biowarfare agents.
F1-1842/142 - Structural Basis for the Binding of RX-04, a Novel Broad Spectrum Antibacterial Class, to Bacterial Ribosomes
The number of copies of a protein produced by a cell is generally viewed as being determined by the number of mRNA transcripts, but recent findings suggest that specialised ribosomes can modify proteome profiles by preferential translation of particular mRNA subsets, particularly in response to stress.
The researchers described that ribosomes are machines on a protein assembly line, linking together amino acids in an order specified by the genetic code.