Landscape and evolutionary dynamics of terminal repeat retrotransposons
in miniature in plant genomes.
, handy hitchhikers of plant regulation and stress response.
20) Zhang and Saier, "Transposon-Mediated Adaptive and Directed Mutations and Their Potential Evolutionary Benefits"; Cordaux and Batzer, "The Impact of Retrotransposons
on Human Genome Evolution"; Farkash and Luning Prak, "DNA Damage and L1 Retrotransposition.
In the last part of this review, we also discuss a hypothetical two-step model from LTR retrotransposons
to endogenous genes during mammalian evolution in which the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution played an essential underlying role in the first part and then was succeeded by Darwinian evolution at the critical selection step.
A Japanese team revealed that LINE-1 retrotransposons
are abnormally abundant in the schizophrenia brain, and modify the expression of genes related to schizophrenia during brain development, and could be one of the causes of schizophrenia.
are abundant and ubiquitous components of eukaryotic genomes, especially plants (Flavell et al.
durangensis suggest that a particular ISTR profile can be associated to each one and that each profile is the result of different integration events of new copies of retrotransposons
accumulated in temporally and spatially separated entities.
This is, however, not uncommon with various DNA transposons and LTR retrotransposons
locating in both promoter and coding regions of genes.
: DNA segment that can duplicate itself and thus multiply in the genome; during this process, the original DNA sequence first copies itself into RNA and then back into DNA, which is then incorporated back into the genome; retrotransposons
make up a substantial portion of the genome.
We found the majority of DNA damage and associated chromatin changes that occurred with adult stem cell aging were due to parts of the genome known as retrotransposons
," said King Jordan, associate professor in the School of Biology at Georgia Tech.
Regulatory element Abbreviation Enhancer -- Repressor/silencer -- Insulator -- MicroRNA miRNA Small interfering RNA siRNA Telomere-specific small RNA tel-sRNA Piwi-interacting RNA piRNA Promoter-associated small RNA PASR Enhancer RNA eRNA Regulatory function Composition Increase transcription DNA sequence Decrease transcription DNA sequence Shield genes from distal inhibitory signals DNA sequence Decrease translation, increase mRNA degradation Small ncRNA Increase mRNA degradation Small ncRNA Regulate cell cycle Small ncRNA Repress retrotransposons
Small ncRNA Regulate transcription Small ncRNA Increase transcription ncRNA
Chromosomal inversions between human and chimpanzee lineages caused by retrotransposons