To interact with retinoid receptors
, retinol must first be metabolized to more active forms, such as retinaldehyde and retinoic acid using several enzymatic steps.
A further indication that the receptor-binding pathway is strongly involved in retinoid dermatitis is the finding that genetically engineered mice born deficient in nuclear retinoid receptors
develop neither epidermal hyperplasia nor skin irritation after the application of topical tretinoin.
belong to a superfamily of ligand-inducible transcription factors including steroid, vitamin D, thyroid hormone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and orphan receptors with unknown functions .
Adipose tissues have long been recognized as potential sites for RA action, and where retinoid receptors
of two different subfamilies (RAR and RXR) are expressed (Haq and Chytil, 1991; Kamei et al.
Preliminary results show that cholecalciferol u pregulares vitamin D and certain retinoid receptors
, inhibits growth and invasion, induces differentiation, and decreases the expression of proteins associated with malignant transformation.
1) program and were used to amplify regions of each of the six retinoid receptors
and PCR products were visualized on 1.
This subclass of retinoid receptors
has biologic activity distinct from that of retinoic acid receptors (RARs).
Researchers have identified several distinct retinoid receptors
on cell nuclei membranes that appear related to other receptors known to regulate genes in this way.
The company's retinoid receptors
include retinoic acid receptors (RARs), retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and RAR-related orphan receptors (RORs).
According to Zoe Diana Draelos, a dermatologist in High Point, NC, retinoids are so effective because skin cells have retinoid receptors
on their surface.
Targretin and other RXR modulators modulate immune response by binding to retinoid receptors
within cells that play a role in regulating cell differentiation, growth and apoptosis.
Retinoids act by interacting with the cellular retinoid receptors
, RAR and RXR, and 9-cis-retinoic acid ('alitretinoin') is believed to be the ligand for RXR, although there is some controversy about this.