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A pair of organs located on each side of the spine in the lower back area. They excrete, or get rid of, urine.
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paired organs in the back of the abdomen. By filtration of water and small molecules from the blood flowing through the capillary complex of their glomeruli, they extract about 1/5 of the whole blood volume per minute, for passage into the tubules where, by selective reabsorption back into the blood, the quantity and content of the urine are regulated. By these means, under the influence of hormones they excrete waste substances and regulate electrolyte and acid-base balance, as well as blood volume, and the concentration of various substances in the blood. They also secrete renin and renal erythropoietic factor and are involved in vitamin D metabolism. See also Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

Patient discussion about kidneys

Q. Why do i get kidney stones? I am 38 and have had three stones pass so far. Is it the coffee, the meat, the stress, or the damned DNA?! My uncle is in his 50s and has passed over 30 stones!

A. Kidney stones are very common and even without the genetic or familial background people tend to get them. Of course, the more family predisposition you have, the higher are your chances of developing them, which is probably why you did. Also, a diet rich with dairy and calcium can cause your body to store excess calcium, that tends to calcify and create stones. Not drinking enough fluid is also one of the reasons.

Q. How can i overcome kidney ache? in the morning it appears.after wake up.

A. First of all, it is important to distinguish kidney ache from lower back ache. If you have ever suffered from kidney problems or infections, it might be advisable to see a doctor, and rule out an infection. However, if you are otherwise healthy, and have been experiencing back pain after you wake up, it is very much possible your pain is not from the kidneys, but from the muscles of your back. In this case, some exercise on a daily basis to help strengthen your lower back can very much ease the pain you're experiencing.

Q. what cause pain around kidney uncomfortable pressure swelling right side back

A. thanx....the pain is dull and there's no fever: muscular pain perhaps? If it worsens, persists or fever developes; I will head to the Doctor. thamx again....

More discussions about kidneys
References in periodicals archive ?
The prescription of nephrotoxic agents did not influence the frequency of measurement of renal function, with the proportion of those patients who had their renal function measured being no different between the cohort prescribed at least one nephrotoxic agent and that which received no nephrotoxic agent (Table 4).
Impaired renal function is prevalent in the elderly and is associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk (1-3).
Renal stenting has been associated with improved blood pressure control and stabilized or improved renal function (5, 6), thus it represents an accepted treatment for patients with renal artery stenosis and severe hypertension and/or renal insufficiency (8).
In the preliminary round, the selective adenosine A1 receptor blocker rapidly improved acute heart failure symptoms, prevented further worsening of renal function, and reduced the combined rate of death or hospital readmission within 60 days, Dr.
No, COX-2 inhibitors, as a class, do not worsen renal function for those without renal disease.
2) In most previous reports, immobilization hypercalcemia occurred in adolescents with normal renal function and a median onset time of 4 weeks.
Voluntary ex ante transparency notice: In-service supply of a system for continuous treatment of renal function (crrt) during acute renal failure, For the a.
Complete blood counts, serum electrolytes, renal function tests, arterial blood gases, prothrombin time, activated partial throm-boplastin time, urine complete examination and abdominal ultrasound of all the patients were done.
The evidence suggests that Metformin can be used for better glycaemic control in patients with mild to moderate kidney disease with periodic renal function monitoring.
Rawalpindi -- Renal function test machine which stands out of order for the past 5 days in laboratory of district headquarters hospital has multiplied the miseries of patients coming for their treatment.
In the present study, 20 hypertensive subjects with normal renal function who were being treated with an ACE inhibitor or ARB were randomly assigned to consume a usual diet or a high-potassium diet, which was achieved by increasing intake of fruits and vegetables.
The paper concluded that a single intravenous infusion of MPC-300-IV was well tolerated and had positive effects on renal function at the 12-week primary endpoint in a Phase 2 trial in adult patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy.