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A pair of organs located on each side of the spine in the lower back area. They excrete, or get rid of, urine.
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paired organs in the back of the abdomen. By filtration of water and small molecules from the blood flowing through the capillary complex of their glomeruli, they extract about 1/5 of the whole blood volume per minute, for passage into the tubules where, by selective reabsorption back into the blood, the quantity and content of the urine are regulated. By these means, under the influence of hormones they excrete waste substances and regulate electrolyte and acid-base balance, as well as blood volume, and the concentration of various substances in the blood. They also secrete renin and renal erythropoietic factor and are involved in vitamin D metabolism. See also Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract

Patient discussion about kidneys

Q. Why do i get kidney stones? I am 38 and have had three stones pass so far. Is it the coffee, the meat, the stress, or the damned DNA?! My uncle is in his 50s and has passed over 30 stones!

A. Kidney stones are very common and even without the genetic or familial background people tend to get them. Of course, the more family predisposition you have, the higher are your chances of developing them, which is probably why you did. Also, a diet rich with dairy and calcium can cause your body to store excess calcium, that tends to calcify and create stones. Not drinking enough fluid is also one of the reasons.

Q. How can i overcome kidney ache? in the morning it appears.after wake up.

A. First of all, it is important to distinguish kidney ache from lower back ache. If you have ever suffered from kidney problems or infections, it might be advisable to see a doctor, and rule out an infection. However, if you are otherwise healthy, and have been experiencing back pain after you wake up, it is very much possible your pain is not from the kidneys, but from the muscles of your back. In this case, some exercise on a daily basis to help strengthen your lower back can very much ease the pain you're experiencing.

Q. what cause pain around kidney uncomfortable pressure swelling right side back

A. thanx....the pain is dull and there's no fever: muscular pain perhaps? If it worsens, persists or fever developes; I will head to the Doctor. thamx again....

More discussions about kidneys
References in periodicals archive ?
A recent study looked at the incidence of lactic acidosis in patients taking metformin with and without abnormalities in renal function (Diabetes Care 2014;37:2291-5).
Unexpectedly, the authors also demonstrated that the use of PN versus RN appears to occur independent of patient age, body mass index, hypertension, and renal function which may indicate that urologists are performing PN based solely on tumour factors.
175mg/kg/day) plus basiliximab (without maintenance corticosteroids) and MMF was associated with lower tacrolimus exposure, and significantly reduced renal function impairment and acute rejection incidence compared to prolonged-release tacrolimus administered at maximum recommended dose (0.
Providing sanitary materials, consumables and solutions for dialysis ATI AP-national program; and kidney dialysis supplies for the National Program of renal function alternates - 17 lots.
Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving enalapril and NSAID therapy.
The current working definition of renal obstruction is any impairment of renal outflow that, left untreated, would lead to a loss of renal function or would prevent the normal maturation of renal function.
Furthermore, at least 95% of patients in their review were reported to carry at least one risk factor for diminished renal function, such as nephrotoxic drug use, heart failure, or hypertension 191.
Patients with severe MS who declined surgery were also excluded because these patients already had low cardiac output (authors of this manuscript were considered that this might influence renal functions earlier than expected and could obscure other parameters' significance in determining worsening renal function).
2) According to the current literature, it is more difficult to preserve renal function in cases of fetal urinomas than in their adult counterparts.
Calcineurin inhibitor (CNIs), such as tacrolimus, are part of the standard-of-care treatment regimen for immunosuppression in liver transplantation, but they can contribute to complications, including impaired renal function.
To test whether the sum of GSG+PF correlates better with renal function, we calculated the percentage of GSG+PF in every biopsy.
However, renal function decreases with age, and high protein intake is contraindicated in individuals with renal disease.