Renal disease


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Related to Renal disease: kidney disease, End stage renal disease

hypertension

High blood pressure Cardiovascular disease An abnormal ↑ systemic arterial pressure, corresponding to a systolic BP of > 160 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of 95 mm Hg and graded according to intensity of ↑ diastolic BP; HTN affects ± 60 million in the US Workup Evaluation of HTN requires clinical Hx for Pt, family Hx, 2 BP determinations, funduscopy, ID of bruits in neck & abdominal aorta, evaluation of peripheral edema, peripheral pulses and residual neurologic defects in stroke victims, chest films to determine cardiac size and lab parameters to rule out causes of secondary HTN Risk factors Race–blacks more common, ♂, family history of HTN, obesity, defects of lipid metabolism, DM, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, electrolyte imbalance–eg, ↑ sodium, phosphorus, ↓ potassium, tin Treatment Diet–eg, sodium restriction, ↓ calories, alcohol and cigarettes–the weight gain accompanying smoking cessation tends to offset the minimal ↓ in BP, calcium supplements, lifestyle manipulation–eg, biofeedback, ↑ exercise; antihypertensives–eg, diuretics–benzothiadiazines, loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, sympatholytic agents–central and peripheral-acting α-adrenergics, β-adrenergics, mixed α- and β-blockers, direct vasodilators, ACE inhibitors–the preferred agent to use ab initio, dihydropiridine CCBs. See ACCT, ACE inhibitor, Borderline hypertension, Borderline isolated systolic hypertension, Calcium channel blocker, Drug-induced hypertension, Essential hypertension, Exercise hypertension, Familial dyslipemic hypertension, Gestational hypertension, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Isolated systolic hypertension, Malignant hypertension, MRC, Obetension, Paradoxic hypertension, Pill hypertension, Pregnancy-induced hypertension, Pseudohypertension, Pulmonary hypertension, Refractory hypertension, Renovascular hypertension, SHEP, STOP-Hypertension, TAIM, TOHP-1, TOMHSTyramine hypertension, White coat hypertension.
Hypertension
Class I–mild Diastolic pressure 90-104 mm Hg
Class II–moderate Diastolic pressure 105-119 mm Hg
Class III–severe Diastolic pressure > than 120 mm Hg
Hypertension types
Essential hypertension Idiopathic HTN The major form comprising 90% of all HTN
Malignant hypertension A sustained BP > 200/140 mm Hg, resulting in arteriolar necrosis, most marked in the brain, eg. cerebral hemorrhage, infarcts, and hypertensive encephalopathy, eyes, eg papilledema and hypertensive retinopathy and kidneys, eg acute renal failure and hypertensive nephropathy; if malignant HTN is uncorrected or therapy refractory, Pts may suffer a hypertensive crisis in which prolonged high BP causes left ventricular hypertrophy and CHF
Paroxysmal hypertension Transient or episodic waves of ↑ BP of any etiology, punctuated by periods of normotension, typical of pheochromocytoma
Portal hypertension ↑ portal vein pressure caused by a backflow of blood through splenic arteries, resulting in splenomegaly and collateral circulation, resulting in esophageal varices and/or hemorrhoids; PH may be intra- or extrahepatic, and is often due to cirrhosis, or rarely portal vein disease, venous thrombosis, tumors or abscesses
Pulmonary hypertension A condition defined as a 'wedge' systolic/diastolic pressure > 30/20 mm Hg–Normal: 18-25/12-16 mm Hg, often secondary to blood stasis in peripheral circulation, divided into passive, hyperkinetic, vasoocclusive, vasoconstrictive and secondary forms. See Pulmonary HTN.
Renovascular hypertension see there.
Secondary hypertension
Aging
Cardiovascular Open heart surgery, coarctation of aorta, ↑ cardiac output–anemia, thyrotoxicosis, aortic valve insufficiency
Cerebral ↑ Intracranial pressure
Endocrine Mineralocorticoid excess, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, glucocorticoid excess, eg Cushing syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly
Gynecologic Pregnancy, oral contraceptives
Neoplasia Renin-secreting tumors, pheochromocytoma
• ↓ Peripheral vascular resistance AV shunts, Paget's disease of bone, beri-beri
Renal disease Vascular, parenchymal

Renal disease

Kidney disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
If the renal disease is recognised earlier, treatment can be improved with a focus on preventing progression.
They concluded that hemodialysis is safe and that the SNHL in these patients may have been attributable solely to their renal disease.
Improve services to treat and care for patients with renal disease.
Renal disease diagnosed before conception is typically diabetic nephropathy or chronic glomerular nephritis.
2) Renal disease affects other body systems, too, including patients with no prior history of high blood pressure who suddenly develop renal disease-associated hypertension.
Lori is one of the most amazing young women I've ever met - it's unbelievable how much she's been able to do,'' said Ward, who works at the University of San Diego Medical Center and met Hartwell when he was serving as president of the Southern California Renal Disease Council.
These figures are probably an underestimate of the extent of TB in renal disease since ascertainment was based on definitive microbiologic or histologic confirmation of diagnosis and legally required reports.
This study used renal biopsy tissues obtained for histological analysis to assist in differential diagnosis of 10 patients with renal disease and without known cardiac disease (4 males and 6 females; age range, 21-43 years).
Sandler, who uncovered phenacetin-like renal disease in chronic acetaminophen users (SN: 5/13/89, p.
As can be seen in the table on page 25, in more than 50 percent of the responses, a history of renal disease, allergies, diabetes, asthma, or heart disease was considered to be an indication for use of the new contrast agents.
NASDAQ: KERX), a biopharmaceutical company focused on the acquisition, development and commercialization of medically important pharmaceutical products for the treatment of renal disease, today announced that a conference call will be held on Wednesday, August 8, 2012 at 8:30 a.
The approach to management depends on whether the patient is diagnosed with renal disease prior to conception or during pregnancy, or whether the disease onset occurs during pregnancy.