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absence of one or both kidneys, most commonly unilateral with absence of the ipsilateral paramesonephric duct and its derivatives; renal function is normal as long as the remaining kidney is intact; bilateral or complete renal agenesis is associated with Potter facies and neonatal death.
renal agenesisThe absence of one or more kidneys, which, if bilateral, is universally fatal.
Renal agenesis is associated with defects of RET and UPK3A.
renal agenesisNeonatology A rare disease characterized by bilateral RA, low-set floppy ears, a broad, flat nose and lung hypoplasia; infants with bilateral RA die shortly after birth; infants with unilateral RA have normal lungs and are asymptomatic in neonatal period
Failure of the fetal kidneys to form. Oligohydramnios usually associated with absence of both kidneys.
Mentioned in: Polyhydramnios and Oligohydramnios
pertaining to the kidney. See also kidney.
results from infected emboli and infarcts. Usually without localizing signs unless they are very large and palpable, or when they extend into the renal pelvis and cause pyelonephritis.
rare, incidental necropsy finding.
failure of the renal tissue to develop; unilateral agenesis causes compensatory hypertrophy in the single kidney; bilateral is fatal. Commonly accompanies genital tract malformation.
see Table 9.
avian renal hemorrhage
sporadic unexplained disease of turkeys; sudden death is common.
is conducted usually with a biopsy needle introduced percutaneously through the flank. In food animals it is possible to fix the left kidney via a rectal manipulation, but the right kidney can be impossible to reach.
renal capsular cyst
see feline perirenal cysts.
commonest in old male dogs. They are very large, spread locally and metastasize widely.
see urinary cast.
renal clearance tests
renal cortical fissures
external fissures created by the lobar structure of the large ruminant kidney.
renal cortical hypoplasia
see renal dysplasia (below).
renal cortical necrosis
results from patchy or complete renal ischemia and is part of the terminal state of many diseases, e.g. severe metritis, grain overload in cattle, azoturia in horses.
renal countercurrent system
incidental necropsy finding except for polycystic kidney disease. See also feline perirenal cysts.
inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in middle-aged German shepherd bitches with generalized nodular dermatofibrosis.
renal diabetes insipidus
see nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
diverticuli of the renal pelvis.
reduced capacity to excrete metabolic products which accumulate systemically and are detectable clinicopathologically by renal function tests. The early stage of uremia.
small, misshapen kidneys at birth. May be caused by intrauterine infection of the fetus by virus, but numerous inherited renal dysplasias occur in dogs. They occur in several breeds and are manifested by signs of chronic renal insufficiency, e.g. polyuria, polydypsia, poor growth and weight gain, pale mucous membranes, and renal secondary osteodystrophia fibrosa, from an early age.
renal erythropoietic factor
inability of the kidney to maintain normal function. Impairment of kidney function affects most of the body's systems because of its important role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating the electrochemical composition of body fluids, providing constant protection against acid-base imbalance, and controlling blood pressure. See also kidney.
renal function tests
include blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine estimations, tests of concentrating ability, tests of ability to excrete test substances, e.g. phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) clearance test. Of the urine tests, only specific gravity (SG) has any significance in terms of a function test but abnormalities of urine should lead to a function test being conducted.
a fissure on the medial border of the kidney through which arteries, veins and ureter enter.
renal hypophosphatemic rickets
inherited as an X-linked dominant trait in children and mice; characterized by hypophosphatemia and normocalcemia due to failure of phosphate resorption in renal tubules, and skeletal deformities. Called also vitamin-resistant rickets.
results from embolic or thrombotic occlusion of renal arteries or branches. Clinical signs are those of renal colic initially followed by toxemia if the infarct is infected.
see renal dysfunction (above).
a significant cause of renal dysfunction and cortical and medullary necrosis. Is usually part of a general state of shock, dehydration and severe toxemia.
a large mass of a kidney, comprising the tissue contributing to each pyramid; kidneys may be unilobar (unipyramidal), e.g. cats, dogs, small ruminants, horses, or multilobar (multipyramidal), e.g. cattle, pigs.
small masses of kidney tissue comprising a medullary ray and its associated nephrons.
renal medullary necrosis
necrosis of the renal medulla due to restriction of blood flow in medullary vessels, usually due to venous occlusion.
renal medullary washout
see medullary solute washout.
renal osteodystrophy, renal osteitis fibrosa, renal osteitis fibrosa cystica
see renal secondary hyperparathyroidism.
deposition of oxalate crystals in renal tubules of patients poisoned by dietary oxalate, usually in poisonous plants.
see renal papilla.
renal papillary necrosis
necrosis of renal papillae due usually to obstruction to urinary flow or poisoning or dehydration.
the chamber in the kidney into which the collecting tubules discharge urine and from which urine is voided into the ureter.
renal plasma flow
the effective rate of blood flow through the kidneys; the determining factor relative to the rate of glomerular filtration.
renal portal system
a system unique to birds; half to two thirds of the blood supply to the kidney comes from the hindlimbs via veins and terminates in peritubular capillaries where it is mixed with arteriolar blood coming from the glomeruli.
see renal secondary hyperparathyroidism.
cessation of the excretory function of the kidney; oliguria.
renal spongiform encephalopathy
spongiform encephalopathy associated with renal failure.
renal tubular casts
see urinary cast.
renal vein thrombosis
commonly associated with renal amyloidosis in dogs.