In their study, neither procedure was effective for all participants, although the response-stimulus pairings resulted in establishment of conditioned reinforcers
for half of their participants, lending some support for this type of conditioning.
Practitioners often attempt to identify potential reinforcers
using interviews, preference surveys, or questionnaires that require individuals or their caretakers (e.
For the two students who did not reach mastery, the motivating value of reinforcers
may have changed over the 3 to 4 months that passed between the end of Phase 1 and the beginning of Phase 2, indicating a need for frequent preference assessments.
Before an extinction plan is put into place to rid the student of unwanted behavior, it is important to conduct a functional analysis to determine whether the reinforcer
for this behavior is task avoidance or terminating the interaction between the instructor and others.
No treatment-related differences were found in total numbers of reinforcers
earned, total session time, or reinforcement density (data not shown).
The position of the reinforcers
was alternated across sessions to control for position bias.
One of the problems a speech-language clinician faces is determining what are the appropriate positive reinforcers
for a particular client.
Cote and colleagues found that items identified during the interview as preferred consequently served as reinforcers
when assessed in a reinforcer
The use of peers has often been employed in conditioning new reinforcers
for getting children to try new foods (Greer, McCorkle, & Sales, 1998; Greer & Sales, 1997) and inducing swallowing (Greer, Dorow, Williams, McCorkle, & Asnes, 1991).
With activity reinforcers
, students earn the right to participate in a particular activity (e.
Specifically, the counselor using TWA with a client who is planning for retirement attempts to help the client compare skills and abilities with the requirements of the environment, needs and values with the reinforcers
of the environment, and personal style with the work environment style.
Reinforcement of positive behaviors commonly utilizes a combination of primary and secondary reinforcers
, with tangible reinforcers
having a rich fixed ratio reinforcement schedule to establish new behaviors, and social reinforcers
having a variable reinforcement schedule to maintain socially appropriate behaviors.