reinforcement

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reinforcement

 [re″in-fors´ment]
the increasing of force or strength. In the psychological theory of behaviorism, presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses. This is central in operant conditioning.



Positive reinforcement consists of a stimulus that is added to the environment immediately after the desired response has been exhibited. It serves to strengthen the response, that is, to increase the likelihood of its occurring again. Examples of such reinforcement are food, money, a special privilege, or some other reward that is satisfying to the subject.

Negative reinforcement consists of a stimulus that is withdrawn (subtracted) from the environment immediately after the response, so that the withdrawal serves to strengthen the response.
reinforcement of reflex strengthening of a reflex response by the patient's performance of some unrelated action during elicitation of the reflex.

re·in·force·ment

(rē'in-fōrs'ment),
1. An increase of force or strength; denoting specifically the increased sharpness of the patellar reflex when the patient at the same time closes a fist tightly or pulls against flexed fingers or contracts some other set of muscles.
See also: Jendrassik maneuver.
See also: reinforcer, schedules of reinforcement, classical conditioning, operant conditioning.
2. In dentistry, a structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function; for example, bars in plastic denture base.
See also: reinforcer, schedules of reinforcement, classical conditioning, operant conditioning.
3. In conditioning, the totality of the process in which the conditioned stimulus is followed by presentation of the unconditioned stimulus, which itself elicits the response to be conditioned.
See also: reinforcer, schedules of reinforcement, classical conditioning, operant conditioning.

reinforcement

/re·in·force·ment/ (-in-fors´ment) in behavioral science, the presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses, whether positive to desirable events, or negative to undesirable events which are reinforced in their removal.

reinforcement

(rē′ĭn-fôrs′mənt)
n.
1. Something that reinforces.
2. Psychology
a. The occurrence or experimental introduction of an unconditioned stimulus along with a conditioned stimulus.
b. The strengthening of a conditioned response by such means.
c. An event, circumstance, or condition that increases the likelihood that a given response will recur in a situation like that in which the reinforcing condition originally occurred.

reinforcement

[rē′infôrs′mənt]
Etymology: L, re + Fr, enforcir, to strengthen
(in psychology) a process in which a response is strengthened by the fear of punishment or the anticipation of reward.

reinforcement

Psychology Any activity, either a reward-positive reinforcement, or punishment-negative reinforcement, intended to strengthen or extinguish a response or behavior, making its occurrence more or less probable, intense, frequent; reinforcement is a process central to operant conditioning. See Contingency reinforcement.

re·in·force·ment

(rē'in-fōrs'mĕnt)
1. An increase of force or strength; denoting specifically the increased sharpness of the patellar reflex when the patient at the same time closes the fist tightly or pulls against the flexed fingers or contracts some other set of muscles.
2. dentistry A structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function (e.g., bars in plastic denture base).
3. conditioning The totality of the process in which the conditioned stimulus is followed by presentation of the unconditioned stimulus that itself elicits the response to be conditioned.
See also: reinforcer

reinforcement

A term used in learning theory and in behaviour therapy that refers to the strengthening of a tendency to respond to particular stimuli in particular ways. In classical conditioning, the occurrence or deliberate introduction of an unconditioned stimulus along with a conditioned stimulus; in operant conditioning, a reinforcer is a stimulus, such as a reward, that strengthens a desired response.

reinforcement

in psychological terms: (1) in operant conditioning, a stimulus that, when presented following a response, leads to an increase in the frequency of emission of the response in the future. Also known as a reinforcer and more colloquially as a reward; (2) the process of strengthening the frequency of a response through presenting a reinforcement. reinforce vt . negative reinforcement the strengthening of the frequency of a response by removing an aversive stimulus. See also conditioning, punishment.

re·in·force·ment

(rē'in-fōrs'mĕnt)
In dentistry, structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function; e.g., bars in plastic denture base.

reinforcement,

n the increasing of force or strength.

reinforcement

the use of a stimulus to modify an existing form of response. The stimulus may be a reward or a punishment and the reinforcement may correspondingly be positive or negative.
References in classic literature ?
cried Porthos, "they are sending us reinforcements, don't you think they are, Aramis?
They were huddled upon the opposite side of the street at the left of the gate, screaming at the tops of their voices and looking in the direction from which sounds of reinforcements were coming, as though urging on the men and lions that were already too close for the comfort of the fugitives.
At any moment the fight may be renewed; but it is thought that U-Thor has sent to Manatos for reinforcements.
Von Horn thought that they had seen the reinforcements embarking from the shore, but Sing explained that that was impossible since the Ithaca had been directly between them and the point at which the returning crew had entered the boats.
Both De Montfort and the King ceased fighting as they gazed upon this body of fresh, well armored, well mounted reinforcements.
And when they returned next morning with reinforcements they found only the mooring-stakes of Big Alec's ark; the ark itself remained hidden for months in the fastnesses of the Suisun tules.
The police were back again and clearing the jam while waiting for reinforcements and new drivers and horses.
Two were down and a great wailing and moaning was arising when reinforcements appeared from above.
It was Corporal Connal of ours, and the thought of him takes my mind off the certainly gallant captain who only that day had joined our division with the reinforcements.
Thither let us tend From off the tossing of these fiery waves, There rest, if any rest can harbour there, And reassembling our afflicted Powers, Consult how we may henceforth most offend Our Enemy, our own loss how repair, How overcome this dire Calamity, What reinforcement we may gain from Hope, If not what resolution from despare.
said the knight to his host, after having swallowed several hasty morsels of this reinforcement to the hermit's good cheer.
Mahomet on his part was not idle; he solicited the assistance of the Mahometan princes, pressed them with all the motives of religion, and obtained a reinforcement of two thousand musketeers from the Arabs, and a train of artillery from the Turks.