reflux nephropathy


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nephropathy

 [nĕ-frop´ah-the]
1. any disease of the kidneys. adj., adj nephropath´ic.
2. any disease of the kidneys; see also nephritis. Called also nephrosis. adj., adj nephropath´ic.
AIDS nephropathy former name for HIV-associated nephropathy.
analgesic nephropathy interstitial nephritis with renal papillary necrosis, seen in patients with a history of abuse of analgesics such as aspirin or acetaminophen alone or in combination.
diabetic nephropathy the nephropathy that commonly accompanies later stages of diabetes mellitus; it begins with hyperfiltration, renal hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and hypertension; in time proteinuria develops, with other signs of decreasing function leading to end-stage renal disease.
gouty nephropathy any of a group of chronic kidney diseases associated with the abnormal production and excretion of uric acid.
heavy metal nephropathy the kidney damage resulting from any of various forms of heavy metal poisoning, usually in the form of tubulointerstitial nephritis. The most common metals involved are cadmium, lead, and mercury.
HIV-associated nephropathy renal pathology in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, similar to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, with proteinuria, enlarged kidneys, and dilated tubules containing proteinaceous casts; it may progress to end-stage renal disease within weeks.
hypokalemic nephropathy nephropathy with hypokalemia, interstitial nephritis, swelling and vacuolization of proximal renal tubules, and progressive renal failure, resulting from conditions such as oncotic overloading of the kidney filtration mechanisms by sugars. See also potassium-losing nephropathy.
IgA nephropathy a chronic form marked by hematuria and proteinuria and by deposits of IgA immunoglobulin in the mesangial areas of the renal glomeruli, with subsequent reactive hyperplasia of mesangial cells. Called also Berger's disease and IgA glomerulonephritis.
ischemic nephropathy nephropathy resulting from partial or complete obstruction of a renal artery with ischemia, accompanied by a significant reduction in the glomerular filtration rate.
lead nephropathy the kidney damage that accompanies lead poisoning; lead deposits appear in the epithelium of the proximal tubules and as nuclear inclusions in cells. In time this leads to tubulointerstitial nephritis with chronic renal failure and other symptoms.
membranous nephropathy membranous glomerulonephritis.
minimal change nephropathy minimal change disease.
obstructive nephropathy nephropathy caused by obstruction of the urinary tract (usually the ureter), with hydronephrosis, slowing of the glomerular filtration rate, and tubular abnormalities.
potassium-losing nephropathy hypokalemic nephropathy after persistent potassium loss; it may be seen in metabolic alkalosis, adrenocortical hormone excess, or in intrinsic renal disease such as renal tubular acidosis or hyperplasia of juxtaglomerular cells. Called also potassium-losing nephritis.
reflux nephropathy childhood pyelonephritis in which the renal scarring results from vesicoureteric reflux, with radiological appearance of intrarenal reflux.
salt-losing nephropathy intrinsic renal disease causing abnormal urinary sodium loss in persons ingesting normal amounts of sodium chloride, with vomiting, dehydration, and vascular collapse. Called also salt-losing nephritis.
urate nephropathy (uric acid nephropathy) any of a group of kidney diseases occurring in patients with hyperuricemia, including an acute form, a chronic form (gouty nephropathy), and nephrolithiasis with formation of uric acid calculi.

re·flux ne·phrop·a·thy

damaged renal parenchyma secondary to vesicoureteral reflux of infected urine.

reflux nephropathy

Ureteral reflux, vesicoureteral reflux, vesicoureteric reflux Nephrology The retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the ureters which occurs when the unidirectional valve-like flow between the ureters and bladder fails; bladder infection may cause pyelonephritis, and expose the kidney to high pressures, which over time damage the kidney and cause scarring Etiology Short or absent bladder wall tunnels, bladder infection, stones, bladder outlet obstruction, neurogenic bladder, abnormal ureters or number of ureters, following surgical reimplantation of ureters during kidney transplantation or due to ureteral trauma Clinical Repeated bladder infections Associations Cystits, stones, bladder outlet obstruction, structural defects of ureters Grading 5 grades; grades I and II don't require treatment Risk factors Personal or family Hx of reflux, congenital urinary tract defects, and recurrent UTIs Prognosis RN may lead to chronic renal failure, ESRD, nephrotic syndrome. See End-stage renal disease, Urinary tract infection.

nephropathy

any disease of the kidneys.

analgesic nephropathy
see analgesic nephropathy.
baby chick nephropathy
see visceral gout.
familial nephropathy
different types of renal disease have been recorded as occurring on a familial basis in Finnish-Landrace sheep and several breeds of dogs, including Lhasa apsos, Shih tzus, Samoyeds, Bull terriers, Norwegian elkhounds, Cocker spaniels and Basenjis.
hypercalcemic nephropathy
juvenile nephropathy
suspected of being familial in many dog breeds especially Malamute, Miniature schnauzer, Keeshond, German shepherd; characterized by renal failure in immature or young adult dogs. The pathogenesis is poorly understood, hence the retention of the title nephropathy.
mycotoxic nephropathy
caused by mycotoxins, such as ochratoxin and citrinin, produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus spp.
pigment nephropathy
see hemoglobinuric nephrosis.
reflux nephropathy
pyelonephritis in which the renal scarring results from vesicoureteric reflux, with radiological appearance of intrarenal reflux.
References in periodicals archive ?
Diabetic nephropathy (a) 28 Hypertensive nephropathy 11 Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (b) 7 Collapsing glomerulopathy (c) 2 Granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis (d) 2 Acute pyelonephritis 1 Thrombotic microangiopathy 1 Atheroembolic disease 1 Reflux nephropathy (e) 1 Proliferative glomerulonephritis (f) 1 Membranous glomerulonephritis (g) 1 Amyloidosis 1 (a) All patients had clinical diabetes.
Reflux nephropathy, which also is called chronic nonobstructive pyelonephritis, is defined as reflux of urine from the urinary bladder through an incompetent vesicoureteral junction and into the ureter and pyelocaliceal system and, eventually, into the renal parenchyma, without mechanical obstruction of the urine outflow tract.
Rates of reflux nephropathy (RN) have decreased remarkably over the past 50 years, owing in various degrees to more rapid detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants and children, improved medical therapy and timely surgical intervention.
Another 2 patients had relatives with end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology, and 1 patient had a son diagnosed with reflux nephropathy.