growth rate(redirected from Rates of Growth)
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the speed or frequency with which an event or circumstance occurs per unit of time, population, or other standard of comparison.
adjusted rate a fictitious summary rate statistically adjusted to remove the effect of a variable, such as age or sex, to permit unbiased comparison between groups having different compositions with respect to these variables. See also crude rate and specific rate.
attack rate in the analysis of acute outbreaks of disease, the proportion of persons who are exposed to the disease during the outbreak who do become ill.
basal metabolic rate an expression of the rate at which oxygen is utilized in a fasting subject at complete rest as a percentage of a value established as normal for such a subject. Abbreviated BMR.
birth rate the number of live births in a geographic area in a defined period, usually one year, relative to some specified population. For the crude birth rate, it is the average total population or the midyear population in the area during the period. Specific birth rates for subsets of the population may also be calculated, for example, an age-specific birth rate is limited to the population of females of a defined age range.
case fatality rate the number of deaths due to a specific disease as compared to the total number of cases of the disease.
crude rate one giving the total number of events occurring in an entire population over a period of time, without reference to any of the individuals or subgroups within the population. See also adjusted rate and specific rate.
death rate the number of deaths in a certain period of time divided by the total of a given population. The crude death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths in a geographic area in one year divided by the average population in the area during the year. The age-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths occurring in a specified age group to the average population of that group. The cause-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths due to a specified cause to the average total population. Called also mortality rate.
DEF rate an expression of dental caries experienced in primary teeth, calculated by adding number of those requiring filling (D), decayed teeth requiring extraction (E), and those that have already been successfully filled (F); missing primary teeth are not included in the calculation.
DMF rate an expression of the condition of the permanent teeth based on the number of teeth decayed, missing (or indicated for removal), and filled or bearing restorations. It is calculated by adding the number of carious permanent teeth requiring filling (D), carious ones requiring extraction (Mr), ones previously extracted because of caries (Mp), and permanent teeth (F).
dose rate the amount of any therapeutic agent administered per unit of time.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) see erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
fatality rate the death rate in a specific group of persons simultaneously affected by some event or circumstances, such as a natural disaster.
fertility rate a measure of fertility in a defined population over a specified period of time, usually one year; particularly the general fertility rate, but also including more specific rates such as those for females of a given parity or a particular age range or that describing the completed rate for females who have finished childbearing.
fetal death rate the ratio of the number of fetal deaths in one year to the total number of both live births and fetal deaths in that year.
five-year survival rate an expression of the number of survivors with no trace of a given disease five years after each has been diagnosed or treated for the disease.
flow rate flow (def. 2).
forced expiratory flow rate forced expiratory flow.
general fertility rate the most widely used measure of fertility; the number of live births in a geographic area in a year per 1000 women of childbearing age, which is usually defined as age 15 to 44 years.
glomerular filtration rate an expression of the quantity of glomerular filtrate formed each minute in the nephrons of both kidneys, calculated by measuring the clearance of specific substances, e.g., inulin or creatinine.
growth rate an expression of the increase in size of an organic object per unit of time.
heart rate the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricles per unit of time (usually per minute).
incidence rate the risk of developing a particular disease during a given period of time; the numerator of the rate is the number of new cases during the specified time period and the denominator is the population at risk during the period. Compare prevalence r.
infant mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than one year of age to the number of live births in that year.
intrinsic rate in cardiac pacing terminology, the heart rate unaided by an artificial pacemaker, expressed in beats per minute (bpm). See also cycle length.
maternal mortality rate a rate in which the numerator is the number of maternal deaths ascribed to puerperal causes in one year; the number of live births in that year is often used as the denominator, although to make a true rate the denominator should be the number of pregnancies (live births plus fetal deaths). Called also puerperal mortality rate.
maximal expiratory flow rate (MEFR) maximal expiratory flow.
maximal midexpiratory flow rate (MMFR) maximal midexpiratory flow.
mendelian rate an expression of the numerical relations of the occurrence of distinctly contrasted mendelian characteristics in succeeding generations of hybrid offspring.
metabolic rate an expression of the amount of oxygen consumed by the body cells.
mortality rate death rate.
neonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than 28 days of age to the number of live births in that year.
paced rate in cardiac pacing terminology, the rate of pulses of an artificial pacemaker, expressed as pulses per minute (ppm). See also cycle length.
perinatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of the sum of fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) and deaths of infants less than 7 days of age in one time period and population to the sum of the number of live births and fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) in that same time period and population.
postneonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in a given year of children between the 28th day of life and the first birthday relative to the difference between the number of the live births and neonatal deaths in that year; the denominator is sometimes simplified, less correctly, to the number of live births. The ratio is sometimes approximated as the difference between the infant mortality rate and the neonatal mortality rate.
prevalence rate the number of people in a population who have a disease at a given time; the numerator is the number of existing cases of disease at a specified time and the denominator is the total population. Time may be a point or a defined interval, and is traditionally the former if unspecified. Compare incidence r.
puerperal mortality rate maternal mortality r.
pulse rate the rate of the pulse, measured as number of pulsations in an artery per unit of time; normally between 60 and 80 per minute in an adult.
respiration rate the number of inhalations and exhalations per unit of time, usually measured by observation of chest movements and averaging 16 to 20 per minute in an adult.
sedimentation rate the rate at which a sediment is deposited in a given volume of solution, especially when subjected to the action of a centrifuge; see also erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
slew rate in cardiac pacing, the rate, expressed in units of mV/msec, at which an R wave reaches peak amplitude; it represents the maximum rate of change of amplifier output voltage.
specific rate a rate that applies to a specific demographic subgroup, e.g., individuals of a specific age, sex, or race, giving the total number of events in relation only to that subgroup. See also adjusted rate and crude rate.
stillbirth rate fetal death rate.
absolute or relative growth increase, expressed per unit of time.
growth rate(grōth rāt)
Absolute or relative growth increase, expressed per unit of time.
growth rate(grōth rāt)
Absolute or relative growth increase, expressed per unit of time.
1. the progressive increase in size of a living thing, especially the process by which the body reaches its point of complete physical development.
2. an abnormal formation of tissue, such as a tumor.
growth arrest line
a radiologically detectable line parallel to the growth plate in the metaphysis that indicates a temporary cessation of bone growth.
an event or state, usually the result of inadequate nutrition, parasitism or other disease, which temporarily reduces or stops growth in a young animal. Often followed by a period of compensatory growth.
increased growth rate during a time period as a result of lower than normal growth rate during a previous period.
bulbous enlargement at the tip of every growing axonal fiber in the fetus, from which many long filapodia extend.
the curve obtained by plotting increase in size or numbers against the elapsed time.
are sometimes traceable to excess or shortage of pituitary secretions, and may arise from hereditary defects or from glandular abnormalities. Abnormally large secretions of growth hormone can produce gigantism. Failure of the pituitary gland to develop sufficiently or to secrete adequate amounts of growth hormone may result in dwarfism. In adulthood, overproduction of growth hormone may lead to acromegaly.
substances which act as local regulators of cell division and function; classified as autocrine (act on cells of the same class) or paracrine (act on cells of a different class).
hematopoietic growth factors
see colony-stimulating factors.
one-step growth curve
a plot typical of the rapid growth of a virus in cell culture when all cells are infected simultaneously.
the epiphyseal cartilage at which new bone formation occurs to lengthen long bones during their growth phase. Called also physis. See also epiphyseal plate.
includes all agents used to increase the rate of body weight gain. Used principally in food animals but also in horses with a view to increasing muscle mass and physical performance, and in any species to hasten recuperation in animals debilitated by illness. Pharmaceutical preparations are principally anabolic steroids. Husbandry procedures include estrogen and zearalenone implants and dietary supplementation with antibiotics, monensin and, in the case of pigs, copper.
rate of increase in body weight per unit of time, e.g. lb/day in beef cattle.
recombinant growth factor
recombinant growth hormone.
stature smaller than normal; called also runt.
growth retardation lattice
radiodense metaphyseal lines parallel to the epiphyseal plate developing in fetal bone.
transforming growth factor [beta]
a family of extracellular signaling molecules important in the transformation of cells and in growth and development.
the frequency with which an event or circumstance occurs per unit of time.
the proportion of a population affected by a specific condition during a prescribed, usually short, period of time.
the rate of occurrence of a specific attribute.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
an expression of the rate at which oxygen is utilized in a fasting subject at complete rest as a percentage of a value established as normal for such a subject.
the number of births during one year for the total population (crude birth rate), for the female population (refined birth rate), or for the female population of reproductive age (true birth rate).
case fatality rate
the number of deaths due to a specific disease as compared with the total number of cases of the disease.
the rate of occurrence of e.g. disease in cohorts.
the number of deaths per stated number of animals (1000 or 10,000 or 100,000) in a certain region in a certain time period.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
see erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
the number of deaths caused by a specific circumstance or disease, expressed as the absolute or relative number among individuals encountering the circumstance or having the disease.
five-year survival rate
an expression of the number of survivors with no trace of disease 5 years after each has been diagnosed or treated for the same disease.
forced expiratory flow rate (FEF)
see maximal expiratory flow rate (below).
glomerular filtration rate
an expression of the quantity of glomerular filtrate formed each minute in the nephrons of both kidneys, calculated by measuring the clearance of specific substances, e.g. inulin or creatinine.
an expression of the increase in size of an organic object per unit of time.
the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricles per unit of time.
describes the probability of a new case occurring during a stated time interval.
percentage of the population from which a specific infectious pathogen is isolated.
rate controlling enzymic steps in metabolic pathways. Often allosteric enzymes with allosteric effector sites but can be controlled through substrate availability, product removal or enzyme concentration.
maximal expiratory flow rate (MEFR)
the slope of the line connecting the points 200 ml and 1200 ml on the forced expiratory volume curve. See also pulmonary function tests. Called also FEF200-1200.
an expression of the amount of oxygen consumed by the body cells.
the number of cases of a given disease occurring in a specified period per unit of population.
death rate; the mortality rate of a disease is the ratio of the number of deaths from a given disease to the total number of cases of that disease.
percentage of reactors in a tested population.
the number of movements of the chest wall per unit of time, indicative of inspiration and expiration.
see relative risk.
the rate at which a sediment is deposited in a given volume of solution, especially when subjected to the action of a centrifuge. See also sedimentation rate.
expresses the frequency of a characteristic per unit of the population.
adaptation of a rate so that the conditions under which it occurred are comparable with those in which other rates have been estimated. There are several methods, e.g. the equivalent average death rate.