ROCK1

ROCK1

A gene on chromosome 18q11.1 that encodes a protein kinase, which is a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton and cell polarity. It regulates smooth muscle contraction, actin cytoskeleton organisation, stress-fibre and focal adhesion formation, and neurite retraction, as well as cell adhesion and motility via phosphorylation of DAPK3, GFAP, LIMK1, LIMK2, MYL9/MLC2, PFN1 and PPP1R12A. It phosphorylates FHOD1, and both promote SRC-dependent non-apoptotic plasma membrane blebbing. ROCK1 also: phosphorylates JIP3 and regulates JNK to JIP3 recruitment in response to UVB-induced stress; suppresses inflammatory cell migration by regulating PTEN phosphorylation and stability; downregulates VEGF-induced angiogenic endothelial cell activation; promotes keratinocyte terminal differentiation; and plays a role in terminal erythroid differentiation. ROCK1 is required for centrosome positioning and centrosome-dependent exit from mitosis. It may regulate closure of the eyelids and ventral body wall by inducing the assembly of actomyosin bundles.
References in periodicals archive ?
Michael Armstrong Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, said that high levels of RhoA and ROCK1 were known to worsen outcomes for breast cancer patients by endowing cancer cells with the ability to move, but the trigger for their production was a mystery.
The proteins RhoA and ROCK1 are known to be central to the formation of these structures.
Moreover, the genes that code for RhoA and ROCK1 were known to be turned on at high levels in human cells from metastatic breast cancers.
MicroRNA-148a suppresses tumor cell invasion and metastasis by downregulating ROCK1 in gastric cancer.
Similarly, the ROCK (Rho-associated protein kinase) inhibitor may have significant patient value because expression of its target ROCK1 is significantly higher in breast tumor tissue and is associated with aggressive disease, the spread of cancer cells and poorer prognosis.
miR146, which is expressed at lower levels in androgen-independent cell lines, targets ROCK1 [encoded by rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1)], a key kinase in hyaluronan-mediated transformation to androgen independency (45).