RET

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Ret

(ret),
Oncogene product defective in multiple endocrine neoplasia types IIA and IIB and Hirschsprung disease. It belongs to that class of membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity.

RET

abbreviation for rational emotive therapy.

RET

A gene on chromosome 10q11.2 that encodes a receptor for tyrosine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation and migration, neuronal navigation and cell differentiation, upon binding with glial-cell-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands. RET regulates cell death/survival, balance and positional information. It orchestrates molecular cascades during intestinal, gut neuroendocrine, gut MALT and renal organogenesis, and it modulates cell adhesion by cleaving caspase in sympathetic neurons and mediates cell migration in an integrin (e.g., ITGB1 and ITGB3)-dependent manner. RET triggers apoptosis by intracellular caspase cleavage; it promotes survival and downregulates growth hormone production, but triggers apoptosis in absence of GDNF.

Molecular pathology
RET mutations are associated with  neuroendocrine cancers, which are characterised by defects in integrin-regulated cell migration.

RET

Abbrev. for rearranged during TRANSFECTION.

retinoscopy (ret) 

The determination of the refractive state of the eye by means of a retinoscope. Syn. skiascopy; shadow test. See chromoretinoscopy.
dynamic retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed with the patient fixating binocularly a near object such as a letter, a word, or a picture mounted on, or held close to, the retinoscope and wearing the distance correction. No working distance lens power is subtracted or added to the finding since the plane of regard is at the same distance as the retinoscope. Syn. book retinoscopy (this term is restricted to the case when the patient is reading a text); cognitive retinoscopy (when the patient fixates a single letter or reads some words); near point retinoscopy. See lag of accommodation; objective accommodation; MEM retinoscopy; Mohindra's technique of retinoscopy; static retinoscopy.
MEM retinoscopy A type of dynamic retinoscopy in which the retinoscope is held in the same plane as the near fixation target and lenses are interposed very briefly in front of one eye, while the other eye fixates the target. The aim of the method is to estimate the fundus reflex motion without disturbing the accommodative stance, that is, by leaving each lens in front of one eye for less than one second, until the neutral point is achieved. The results in non-presbyopic subjects generally show a lag of accommodation of 0 to +0.75 D. Note: MEM is an acronym of 'monocular estimate method'.
Mohindra's technique of retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed in a darkened room at 50 cm (20 inches) with the patient fixating the retinoscope light monocularly (the other eye being occluded). Distance retinoscopic refraction is derived by adding −1.00 D (to take into account the working distance and the state of accommodation in the dark) to the value found by near retinoscopy. The technique is used in paediatric optometry. Syn. monocular near retinoscopy. See resting state of accommodation; dynamic retinoscopy; MEM retinoscopy.
near point retinoscopy See dynamic retinoscopy; Mohindra's technique of.
static retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed with the patient fixating a target at distance or with accommodation paralysed.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the last two decades, many authors have done genetic analysis of RET proto-oncogenes, but had conflicting results.
Hiai, "Cloning and expression of the ret proto-oncogene encoding a tyrosine kinase with two potential transmembrane domains," Oncogene, vol.
The RET proto-oncogene has been shown to have a significant role in cancer treatment and prevention.
Analysis of RET proto-oncogene mutation at codon 918 should be performed in all children born to parents with MEN 2B, as well as in children with ambiguous clinical features suggestive of MEN 2B.
Germline sequence variant S836S in the RET proto-oncogene is associated with low level predisposition to sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma in the Spanish population.
Functional haplotypes of the RET proto-oncogene promotor are associated with Hirschsprung disease.
Genetic alterations of the RET proto-oncogene in familial and sporadic pheochromocytomas.
Characterization of RET proto-oncogene mRNAs encoding two isoforms of the protein product in a human neuroblastoma cell line.
The relationship between specific RET proto-oncogene mutations and disease phenotype in multiple endocrine neo-plasia type 2: International RET Mutation Consortium analysis.
Specific mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are related to disease phenotype in MEN 2A and FMTC.