RET

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Ret

(ret),
Oncogene product defective in multiple endocrine neoplasia types IIA and IIB and Hirschsprung disease. It belongs to that class of membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity.

RET

abbreviation for rational emotive therapy.

RET

A gene on chromosome 10q11.2 that encodes a receptor for tyrosine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation and migration, neuronal navigation and cell differentiation, upon binding with glial-cell-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands. RET regulates cell death/survival, balance and positional information. It orchestrates molecular cascades during intestinal, gut neuroendocrine, gut MALT and renal organogenesis, and it modulates cell adhesion by cleaving caspase in sympathetic neurons and mediates cell migration in an integrin (e.g., ITGB1 and ITGB3)-dependent manner. RET triggers apoptosis by intracellular caspase cleavage; it promotes survival and downregulates growth hormone production, but triggers apoptosis in absence of GDNF.

Molecular pathology
RET mutations are associated with  neuroendocrine cancers, which are characterised by defects in integrin-regulated cell migration.

RET

Abbrev. for rearranged during TRANSFECTION.

retinoscopy (ret) 

The determination of the refractive state of the eye by means of a retinoscope. Syn. skiascopy; shadow test. See chromoretinoscopy.
dynamic retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed with the patient fixating binocularly a near object such as a letter, a word, or a picture mounted on, or held close to, the retinoscope and wearing the distance correction. No working distance lens power is subtracted or added to the finding since the plane of regard is at the same distance as the retinoscope. Syn. book retinoscopy (this term is restricted to the case when the patient is reading a text); cognitive retinoscopy (when the patient fixates a single letter or reads some words); near point retinoscopy. See lag of accommodation; objective accommodation; MEM retinoscopy; Mohindra's technique of retinoscopy; static retinoscopy.
MEM retinoscopy A type of dynamic retinoscopy in which the retinoscope is held in the same plane as the near fixation target and lenses are interposed very briefly in front of one eye, while the other eye fixates the target. The aim of the method is to estimate the fundus reflex motion without disturbing the accommodative stance, that is, by leaving each lens in front of one eye for less than one second, until the neutral point is achieved. The results in non-presbyopic subjects generally show a lag of accommodation of 0 to +0.75 D. Note: MEM is an acronym of 'monocular estimate method'.
Mohindra's technique of retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed in a darkened room at 50 cm (20 inches) with the patient fixating the retinoscope light monocularly (the other eye being occluded). Distance retinoscopic refraction is derived by adding −1.00 D (to take into account the working distance and the state of accommodation in the dark) to the value found by near retinoscopy. The technique is used in paediatric optometry. Syn. monocular near retinoscopy. See resting state of accommodation; dynamic retinoscopy; MEM retinoscopy.
near point retinoscopy See dynamic retinoscopy; Mohindra's technique of.
static retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed with the patient fixating a target at distance or with accommodation paralysed.
References in periodicals archive ?
RET proto-oncogene mutations in inherited and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer.
A case of metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma: Early identification before surgery of an RET proto-oncogene somatic mutation in fine-needle aspirate specimens.
Germline sequence variant S836S in the RET proto-oncogene is associated with low level predisposition to sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma in the Spanish population.
Specific polymorphisms in the RET proto-oncogene are over-represented in patients with Hirschsprung disease and may represent loci modifying phenotypic expression.
Functional haplotypes of the RET proto-oncogene promotor are associated with Hirschsprung disease.
Sequence and characterisation of the RET proto-oncogene 5' flanking region: analysis of retinoic acid responsiveness at the transcriptional level.
RET proto-oncogene mutations affecting codon 790/791: a mild form of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A syndrome?
2304 G [right arrow] T, in codon 768 of the RET proto-oncogene in a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma.
Familial form of Hirschsprung disease: nucleotide sequence studies reveal point mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in two of six families but not in other candidate genes.
High prevalence of the C634Y mutation in the RET proto-oncogene in MEN 2A families in Spain.
Point mutation within the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B and related sporadic tumors.