R factor


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factor

 [fak´ter]
an agent or element that contributes to the production of a result.
accelerator factor factor V, one of the coagulation factors.
factor I see coagulation factors.
factor II see coagulation factors.
factor III see coagulation factors.
factor IV see coagulation factors.
factor V see coagulation factors.
factor VI see coagulation factors.
factor VII see coagulation factors.
factor VIII see coagulation factors.
factor IX see coagulation factors.
factor X see coagulation factors.
factor XI see coagulation factors.
factor XII see coagulation factors.
factor XIII see coagulation factors.
angiogenesis factor a substance that causes the growth of new blood vessels, found in tissues with high metabolic requirements such as cancers and the retina. It is also released by hypoxic macrophages at the edges or outer surface of a wound and initiates revascularization in wound healing.
antihemophilic factor (AHF)
2. a preparation of factor VIII administered intravenously for the prevention or treatment of hemorrhage in patients with hemophilia A and the treatment of von Willebrand disease, hypofibrinogenemia, and coagulation factor XIII deficiency. Included are preparations derived from human plasma (antihemophilic factor, cryoprecipitated antihemophilic factor) or porcine plasma (antihemophilic factor [porcine]) and those produced by recombinant technology antihemophilic factor [recombinant]).
antihemophilic factor A factor VIII, one of the coagulation factors.
antihemophilic factor B factor IX, one of the coagulation factors.
antihemophilic factor C factor XI, one of the coagulation factors.
antihemorrhagic factor vitamin K.
antinuclear factor (ANF) antinuclear antibody.
antirachitic factor vitamin D.
atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) a hormone produced in the cardiac atrium; an inhibitor of renin secretion and thus of the production of angiotensin, and a stimulator of aldosterone release. Its effect is increased excretion of water and sodium and a lowering of blood pressure.
factor B a complement component that participates in the alternative complement pathway.
blastogenic factor lymphocyte-transforming factor.
carative f's in the theory of human caring, a set of ten factors that offer a descriptive topology of interventions including (1) a humanistic-altruistic system of values; (2) faith-hope; (3) sensitivity to self and others; (4) a helping-trusting, human care relationship; (5) the expression of positive and negative feelings; (6) a creative problem-solving caring process; (7) transpersonal teaching and learning; (8) a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment; (9) human needs assistance; and (10) existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces.
Christmas factor factor IX, one of the coagulation factors.
citrovorum factor folinic acid.
clotting f's coagulation factors.
C3 nephritic factor (C3 NeF) an autoantibody that stabilizes the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase, preventing its inactivation by factor h, resulting in complete consumption of plasma C3; it is found in the serum of many patients with type II membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
coagulation f's see coagulation factors.
colony-stimulating factor (CSF) any of a number of glycoproteins responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, and functional activation of hematopoietic progenitor cells; specific factors are named for the cell lines that they stimulate. Used to promote bone marrow proliferation in aplastic anemia, following cytotoxic chemotherapy, or following bone marrow transplantation. Types include granulocyte, granulocyte-macrophage, and macrophage colony-stimulating factors.
factor D a factor that when activated serves as a serine esterase in the alternative complement pathway.
decay accelerating factor (DAF) a protein of most blood as well as endothelial and epithelial cells, CD55 (see CD antigen); it protects the cell membranes from attack by autologous complement.
endothelial-derived relaxant factor (endothelial-derived relaxing factor) (endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)) nitric oxide.
extrinsic factor cyanocobalamin.
F factor (fertility factor) F plasmid.
fibrin-stabilizing factor (FSF) factor XIII, one of the coagulation factors.
Fletcher factor prekallikrein.
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) a colony-stimulating factor that stimulates production of neutrophils from precursor cells.
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) a colony-stimulating factor that binds to stem cells and most myelocytes and stimulates their differentiation into granulocytes and macrophages.
growth factor any substance that promotes skeletal or somatic growth; usually a mineral, hormone, or vitamin.
factor H a complement system regulatory protein that inhibits the alternative pathway of complement activation.
Hageman factor (HF) factor XII, one of the coagulation factors. See illustration.
Activation of Hageman factor (factor XII) leads to increased vascular permeability, clotting, and thrombolysis. From Damjanov, 2000.
hematopoietic growth f's a group of substances with the ability to support hematopoietic colony formation in vitro, including erythropoietin, interleukin-3, and colony-stimulating factors. All except erythropoietin stimulate mature cells, have overlapping capabilities to affect progenitor cells of several blood cell lines, and also affect cells outside the hematopoietic system.
histamine-releasing factor (HRF) a lymphokine, believed to be produced by macrophages and B lymphocytes, that induces the release of histamine by IgE-bound basophils. It occurs in late phase allergic reaction, six or more hours after contact with the antigen, in sensitive individuals.
homologous restriction factor (HRF) a regulatory protein that binds to the membrane attack complex in autologous cells, inhibiting the final stages of complement activation.
factor I a plasma enzyme that regulates both classical and alternative pathways of complement activation by inactivating their C3 convertases.
immunoglobulin-binding factor (IBF) a lymphokine having the ability to bind IgG complexed with antigen and prevent complement activation.
insulinlike growth f's (IGF) insulinlike substances in serum that do not react with insulin antibodies; they are growth hormone–dependent and possess all the growth-promoting properties of the somatomedins.
intensification factor in radiology, the comparative increase in light transmission when films are exposed in the presence of intensifying screens compared to that in the absence of screens.
intrinsic factor a glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells of the gastric glands, necessary for the absorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12). Its absence results in pernicious anemia.
LE factor an immunoglobulin that reacts with leukocyte nuclei, found in the serum in systemic lupus erythematosus.
lymph node permeability factor (LNPF) a substance from normal lymph nodes that produces vascular permeability.
lymphocyte mitogenic factor (LMF) (lymphocyte-transforming factor) a substance that is released by lymphocytes stimulated by specific antigen and causes nonstimulated lymphocytes to undergo blast transformation and cell division; called also blastogenic factor.
macrophage-activating factor (MAF) interferon-α.
macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) a colony-stimulating factor secreted by macrophages, stimulated endothelial cells, and most tissues, that stimulates the production of macrophages from precursor cells and maintains the viability of mature macrophages in vitro.
macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) a lymphokine that attracts macrophages to the invasion site.
macrophage-derived growth factor a substance released by macrophages below the surface of a wound that induces the proliferation of fibroblasts.
macrophage inhibition factor (macrophage inhibitory factor) migration inhibitory factor.
migration inhibition factor (migration inhibitory factor) a lymphokine that inhibits macrophage migration.
minification factor in radiology, the gain in light achieved by a reduction in size of the output phosphor from the input phosphor size.
osteoclast-activating factor (OAF) a lymphokine that stimulates bone resorption; it may be involved in the bone resorption associated with multiple myeloma and other hematologic neoplasms or inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease.
factor P properdin.
platelet f's see platelet factors.
platelet-activating factor (PAF) a substance released by basophils and mast cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions, and by macrophages and neutrophils in other inflammatory reactions; it leads to bronchoconstriction, platelet aggregation, and release of vasoactive substances from platelets.
platelet-derived growth factor a substance contained in platelets and capable of inducing proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and glial cells; its action contributes to the repair of damaged vascular walls.
R factor R plasmid.
releasing f's factors elaborated in one structure (as in the hypothalamus) that effect the release of hormones from another structure (as from the anterior pituitary gland), including corticotropin-releasing factor, melanocyte-stimulating hormone–releasing factor, and prolactin-releasing factor. Applied to substances of unknown chemical structure, while substances of established chemical identity are called releasing hormones.
resistance factor R f.
Rh factor a type of agglutinogen found on some erythrocytes; see also rh factor.
rheumatoid factor (RF) antibodies directed against antigenic determinants on IgG molecules, found in the serum of about 80 per cent of patients with classic or definite rheumatoid arthritis; but in only about 20 per cent of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; rheumatoid factors may be IgM, IgG, or IgA antibodies, although serologic tests measure only IgM. Rheumatoid factors also occur in other connective tissue diseases and infectious diseases.
risk factor an agent or situation that is known to make an individual or population more susceptible to the development of a specific negative condition.
risk factor (omaha) an environmental, psychosocial, or physiologic event or health related behavior that increases the client's exposure or vulnerability to the development of a client problem; the nurse's knowledge base of risk factors is used to identify potential problem modifiers in the Problem Classification scheme of the omaha system.
stable factor factor VII, one of the coagulation factors.
Stuart factor (Stuart-Prower factor) factor X, one of the coagulation factors.
sun protection factor (SPF) a numerical rating of the amount of protection afforded by a sunscreen; the higher the number, the more protection is provided.
tissue factor factor III, one of the coagulation factors.
transfer factor (TF) a factor occurring in sensitized lymphocytes that can transfer delayed hypersensitivity to a formerly nonreactive individual; see also transfer factor.
tumor necrosis factor (TNF) either of two lymphokines produced primarily by cells of the immune system, capable of causing in vivo hemorrhagic necrosis of certain tumor cells but not normal cells. They also destroy cells associated with the inflammatory response. They have been used as experimental anticancer agents but can also induce shock when bacterial endotoxins cause their release. Tumor necrosis factor α, formerly called cachectin, contains 157 amino acids and is produced by macrophages, eosinophils, and NK cells. Tumor necrosis factor β is lymphotoxin and contains 171 amino acids.
vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (vascular permeability factor (VPF)) a peptide factor that stimulates the proliferation of cells of the endothelium of blood vessels; it promotes tissue vascularization and is important in blood vessel formation in tumors.
von Willebrand's factor (vWF) a glycoprotein synthesized in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes that circulates complexed to coagulation factor VIII. It is involved in adhesion of platelets to damaged epithelial surfaces and may participate in platelet aggregation. Deficiency results in the prolonged bleeding time seen in von Willebrand's disease.

R factor

n.
1. Any of the conjugative or nonconjugative plasmids that carry and transmit genes responsible for resistance to antibiotics from one bacterium to another. Also called resistance factor, resistance plasmid, R plasmid.
2. See R-value.

R factor

an episome in bacteria that is responsible for drug resistance and is transmissible to progeny and to other bacterial cells by conjugation. The part of the episome involved in replication and transmission is called resistance transfer factor.

factor

(fak'tor) [L. factor, maker]
1. A contributing cause in an action.
2. In genetics, a gene.
3. An essential chemical such as a vitamin or immunoglobulin.

angiogenic growth factor

Any of a group of polypeptides that stimulate the formation of new blood vessels. They include agents like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and blood vessel fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF). These factors are active in healing wounds, chronic inflammatory conditions, retrolental fibroplasia, and malignant tumors, which require new blood vessels for continued growth.

antihemophilic factor

Abbreviation: AHF.
Coagulation factor VIII, a glycoprotein clotting factor essential for the formation of blood thromboplastin. A deficiency results in hemophilia A.
See: blood coagulation; coagulation factor

atrial natriuretic factor

A peptide secreted by the atrial tissue of the heart in response to an increase in blood pressure. It influences blood pressure, blood volume, and cardiac output. It increases the excretion of sodium and water in urine, thereby lowering blood volume and blood pressure and influencing cardiac output. Its secretion rate depends on glomerular filtration rate and inhibits sodium reabsorption in distal tubules. These actions reduce the workload of the heart. Synonym: atrial natriuretic hormone; atrial natriuretic peptide; atriopeptin

autocrine factor

A growth factor produced by the cell that stimulates the same cell to grow.

autocrine motility factor

A chemical released by cancer cells that induces motility, enabling the cells to metastasize.

B cell growth factor

Interleukin-4.

B cell stimulatory factor II

Interleukin-6.

Bucky factor

See: Bucky, Gustav P.

cervical factor

In infertile women, any disease of the uterine cervix that prevents conception, e.g., cervical stenosis.

Christmas factor

See: Christmas, Stephen

citrovorum factor

Leucovorin.

clotting factor

Coagulation factor.

coagulation factor

Any of the factors involved in blood clotting. The generally accepted terms for the factors and their Roman numeral designations are as follows:

factor I, fibrinogen; factor II, prothrombin; factor III, thromboplastin; factor IV, calcium (ions); factor V, proaccelerin; factor VII, serum prothrombin conversion accelerator; factor VIII, antihemophilic factor; factor IX, plasma thromboplastin component; factor X, Stuart-Prower factor; factor XI, plasma thromboplastin antecedent; factor XII, Hageman factor; factor XIII, fibrin-stabilizing factor; prekallikrein; and high-molecular-weight kininogen, also called Fitzgerald, Flaujeac, or Williams factor, or contact activation cofactor. Factor VI, once called accelerin, is no longer used.

Synonym: clotting factor See: blood coagulation

colony-stimulating factor–1

Abbreviation: CSF-1
A protein in human serum that promotes monocyte differentiation.
See: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

contact factor

Hageman factor.

correction factor

A number by which a measured value is multiplied to correct for systematic measurement error.

corticotropin-releasing factor

Corticotropin-releasing hormone.

drop factor

The number of drops of an infusion that add to a volume equal to 1 milliliter.

edema factor

An enzyme made by Bacillus anthracis. It causes the cellular and tissue swelling characteristic of anthrax infection.

endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor

Abbreviation: EDHF
A vasodilating substance released by the vascular endothelium.
See: endothelium

endothelium-derived relaxing factor

Abbreviation: EDRF
An active vasodilator released by the vascular endothelium. It facilitates relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and inhibition of adhesion and aggregation of platelets. When the normal function of the endothelium is disrupted by mechanical trauma, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or atherosclerosis, less EDRF is released, and the inhibition of platelet aggregation is decreased. In addition, the damaged vessels constrict, which favors the formation of thrombi.
See: endothelium

eosinophil chemotactic factor

A mediator released in response to inflammation when mast cells are injured.

eosinophil colony-stimulating factor

Interleukin-5.

eosinophil differentiation factor

Interleukin-5.

epidermal growth factor

Abbreviation: EGF
A polypeptide that stimulates growth of several different cells, including keratinocytes. A receptor for EGF is located on the surface of many cancer cells. It has been used experimentally to promote wound healing.

extrinsic factor

1. Serum prothrombin conversion accelerator.
2. An obsolete term for vitamin B12.
See: pernicious anemia.

fibrin-stabilizing factor

Abbreviation: FSF
Coagulation factor XIII, a clotting factor that is active in the intrinsic, extrinsic, and common pathways of coagulation and, when activated by thrombin, transforms monomeric fibrin to stable fibrin polymers.
Synonym: plasma transglutaminase See: blood coagulation ; coagulation factor

fibroblast growth factor

Any of a group of polypeptides that stimulate the growth of tissues rich in fibroblasts, including blood vessels, connective tissues, and skin. Overactivity of these factors has been associated with neoplasia.

general intelligence factor

Abbreviation: g
The hypothetical common feature identified by all intelligence (IQ) tests. The concept of general intelligence was developed by Charles Spearman, a British psychologist and statistician, who noticed that students who do well in one subject tend to do well in all school subjects and that students who do poorly in one field of study also lag behind in others. He proposed that the general ability to master academic material was due to superior general intelligence and that specific cognitive talents correlated with overall intellectual superiority. This concept, like many others in the field of psychometrics and intelligence testing, is controversial.

granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

Abbreviation: G-CSF
A naturally occurring cytokine glycoprotein that stimulates the proliferation and functional activity of neutrophils. It is effective in treating bone marrow deficiency after cancer chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation. The generic name is filgrastim.
See: colony-stimulating factor–1

granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

Abbreviation: GM-CSF
A naturally occurring cytokine glycoprotein that stimulates the production of neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. It is effective in treating bone marrow deficiency following cancer chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation. The generic name is sargramostim; trade names are Leukine and Prokine.
See: colony-stimulating factor–1

growth factor

Abbreviation: GF
A substance (generally a protein, polypeptide, or peptide) that stimulates the differentiation, division, development, and maintenance of cells and the tissues they make up. Growth factors are signaling molecules released by certain groups of cells, e.g., lymphocytes, to influence the activities of other cells. Growth factors can be divided into families, e.g., platelet-derived GFs, transforming GFs, and angiogenic GFs. They are released normally during fetal and embryonic development, wound healing, and tissue maturation. Massive releases of GFs are characteristic of some types of cancer cells. Artificial GFs, e.g., granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, are used in health care to restore depressed levels of cells to normal values, e.g., in patients who have received chemotherapy. See: cytokine

Hageman factor

Coagulation factor XII, a serine protease, not vitamin-K–dependent, involved in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation.
Synonym: contact factor See: blood coagulation; coagulation factor

hematopoietic growth factor

Any of a group of at least seventeen substances involved in the production of blood cells, including several interleukins and erythropoietin.

heparin-binding epidermal growth factor

Abbreviation: HB-EGF
A cytokine monokine involved in immune and inflammatory responses. It is produced by macrophages and stimulates production of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts.

hepatocyte growth factor

A cytokine monokine involved in immune and inflammatory responses. It is produced by platelets, fibroblasts, macrophages, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. It stimulates growth of hepatocytes and increases migration and motility of various epithelial and endothelial cells.

hepatocyte stimulatory factor

Interleukin-6.

human factor

A general term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. It focuses on human abilities, limitations, and characteristics as they relate to their environment.

hypoxia-inducible factor

A factor within aerobic cells that helps them adapt to abnormally low oxygen concentrations.

insulin sensitivity factor

The decrease in blood sugar produced by each unit of injected insulin.

insulin-like growth factor

Abbreviation: IGF
Any of a group of related peptides, synthesized by the liver as a result of human growth hormone secretion. The IGF family of polypeptides is structurally similar to insulin in that it is composed of two subunits that are short polypeptides. IGF-1 and IGF-2, for example, each contain about 70 amino acids. They have a wide variety of functions, including the stimulation of cell growth and proliferation (as in the developing embryo and neonate), DNA synthesis, bone growth, and the replication of cancer cells. Drugs that block IGF have been tested for use in cancer chemotherapy.

intrinsic factor

A glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa. It is necessary for the absorption of ingested vitamin B12. The absence of this factor leads to vitamin B12 deficiency and pernicious anemia.
Synonym: Castle intrinsic factor

labile factor

Proaccelerin.

lethal factor

1. A gene or an abnormality in genetic composition that causes death of a zygote or of an individual before reproductive age.
2. A protein made by Bacillus anthracis. It splits signal transduction proteins within infected cells, resulting in cellular dysfunction and death.

leukemia inhibitory factor

Abbreviation: LIF
A cytokine that regulates the growth and differentiation of many cells throughout the body, including endothelial cells, fat cells, embryonic stem cells, germ cells, osteoblasts, and peripheral nerve cells.

leukocyte inhibitory factor

Leukocyte migration inhibition factor.

leukocyte migration inhibition factor

Abbreviation: LMIF
A lymphokine that inhibits movement of neutrophils.
Synonym: leukocyte inhibitory factor

lymphocyte mitogenic factor

Abbreviation: LMF
A lymphokine that stimulates production of lymphocytes and other lymphokines.

lipotropic factor

Any of the compounds that promote the transportation and use of fats and help to prevent accumulation of fat in the liver.

macrophage activating factor

Abbreviation: MAF
A lymphokine that stimulates macrophages to become more effective killers of certain microbial cells. Macrophages stimulated by MAF can kill tumor cells.

macrophage chemotactic factor

Abbreviation: MCF
A lymphokine released by T and B cell lymphocytes in response to an antigen. It attracts macrophages to the site of the invading antigen.

macrophage colony stimulating factor

Abbreviation: M-CSF
A hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates monocytes to form colonies.

magnification factor

Abbreviation: MF
A quantitative expression of the degree of enlargement of an image in which the image size is divided by object size. In radiography, it is the ratio of the source-to-image-receptor distance to the source-to-object distance.

male factor

Any cause for a couple's difficulty in conceiving a child that results from diseases of the male reproductive organs, e.g., a low sperm count or inadequate sperm motility.

mast cell growth factor

Interleukin-3.

mast cell growth factor II

Interleukin-4.

maturation-promoting factor

Abbreviation: MPF
A complex cellular protein that stimulates cell division in eukaryotic cells. Part of MPF is the protein cyclin, which accumulates during interphase and triggers mitosis or meiosis. Synonym: M-phase promoting factor

milk factor

A substance present in certain strains of mammary cancer-prone mice that is transferred to offspring through milk from the mammary glands. It can induce the development of mammary cancer in suckling mice exposed to the factor.

M-phase promoting factor

Maturation-promoting factor.

multi-colony stimulating factor

Interleukin-3.

natural killer cell stimulating factor

Interleukin-12.

neutrophil chemotactic factor

A lymphokine that attracts neutrophils, but not other white blood cells, and causes proteolytic damage in sepsis and trauma.

nerve growth factor

Abbreviation: NGF
A protein necessary for the growth and maintenance of sympathetic and certain sensory neurons.

osteoclast-activating factor

Abbreviation: OAF
A lymphokine produced in certain conditions associated with resorption of bone, including periodontal disease and lymphoid malignancies such as multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma. Interleukin-1 and other substances produced by T lymphocytes and prostaglandins are OAFs.

osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor

Abbreviation: OCIF
A protein produced by activated T cells that inhibits the proliferation of osteoclasts.
Synonym: osteoprotegerin

ovarian factor

Any cause of female infertility that results from failure of egg production by the ovaries

ovulatory factor

1. In women who are infertile, any disease or condition that interferes with the monthly release of an unfertilized egg from the ovaries.
2. In ovarian cancer, the carcinogenic effect of ovulation on the surface epithelium of an ovary.

plasmacytoma simulating factor

Interleukin-11.

platelet-activating factor

Abbreviation: PAF
A phospholipid that affects the signaling between cells in important body processes such as inflammation, sepsis, and thrombosis. It is released by mast cells, basophils, and activated eosinophils.

platelet-derived growth factor

A polypeptide that stimulates collagen synthesis, smooth muscle formation, tissue repair, and the proliferation of fibroblasts and microglia.

platelet tissue factor

Thromboplastin.

pre-B cell growth factor

A polypeptide that stimulates collagen synthesis, smooth muscle formation, tissue repair, and the proliferation of fibroblasts and microglia.

predictive factor

A characteristic of a patient that indicates a greater or lesser likelihood of responding to a specific treatment regimen.

procoagulant factor

A lymphokine that can assume the role of factor VIII (antihemophilic factor) in coagulation cascade.

prognostic factor

Any feature of a disease or of a patient's presentation that suggests that he or she will be affected for better or worse by an illness.

quality factor

Abbreviation: Q
In radiology, a scale used to account for the biological effects of different radiations. Factors include beta, electron, and gamma x-radiation (Q = 1), thermal neutrons (Q = 5), and alpha neutrons and protons (Q = 20).

R factor

Resistance transfer factor.

resistance transfer factor

Abbreviation: RTF
A genetic factor in bacteria that controls resistance to certain antibiotic drugs. The factor may be passed from one bacterium to another. This makes it possible for nonpathogenic bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics and to transfer that resistance to pathogens, thereby establishing a potential source for an epidemic.
Synonym: R factor See: plasmid

Rh factor

An antigen found on the membranes of the red blood cells. It was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Alexander S. Wiener, who prepared anti-Rh serum by injecting red cells from Rhesus monkeys into rabbits and other animals. They found that the red cells of 85% of Caucasians agglutinates in contact with anti-Rh serum. These people are called Rh-positive. The remaining 15%, whose red cells are not agglutinated by anti-Rh serum, are called Rh-negative. More than 25 blood factors are known to belong to the Rh system. Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is the cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn.

rheumatoid factor

Antibodies raised by the body against immunoglobulins. They are present in roughly 80% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in many patients with other rheumatological and infectious illnesses. This factor is used, with other clinical indicators, in the diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis.

risk factor

An environmental, chemical, psychological, physiological, or genetic element that predisposes someone to the development of a disease. Risk factors for coronary artery disease include hypertension, high circulating blood lipids and cholesterol, obesity, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, and an early family history of atherosclerosis.
Synonym: risk marker

spreading factor

The hyaluronidase made by Bacillus anthracis. See: hyaluronidase

stable factor

Serum prothrombin conversion accelerator.

susceptibility factor

A condition that increases a person's likelihood of acquiring a disease. The propensity to develop disease is often the result of a genetic mutation in a single base DNA base pair.

stem cell factor

Abbreviation: SCF
A cytokine glycoprotein that influences the development of sperm and egg cells, the production of melanin, and mast cell development.

Stuart-Prower factor

Coagulation factor X, a vitamin-K–dependent protease, synthesized by the liver, that, when activated to factor Xa, is the first coagulation factor in the common final pathway of blood coagulation that generates thrombin from prothrombin. The factors that lead to it are limited to the extrinsic or intrinsic coagulation pathways. The Stuart-Prower factor was formerly called “thrombokinase.”
See: blood coagulation; coagulation factor

T-cell growth factor

Interleukin-2.

T-cell growth factor II

Interleukin-4.

thyroid-stimulating hormone-releasing factor

Abbreviation: TSH-RF
An obsolete term for
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

tissue factor

Abbreviation: TF
Thromboplastin.

transfer factor

Any of the low-molecular-weight chemicals extracted from immune cells activated to respond to specific antigens. These products can be taken from a sensitized person and given to another. The recipient will react to the same antigen originally used to sensitize the lymphocytes of the donor. The factor can be transferred by injecting the recipient with either intact lymphocytes or extracts of disrupted cells. It has been studied as adjunctive therapy to modulate the immune system in several clinical trials.

transforming growth factor

Abbreviation: TGF
A polypeptide growth factor that competitively binds to epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. This molecule can promote growth of fibroblasts in cell cultures, thus transforming normal cells into those with the abnormal properties of malignant cells.

tubal factor

Any abnormality of the fallopian tubes that produces infertility.

tumor angiogenesis factor

Abbreviation: TAF
A protein in animal and human cancer tissue that in experimental studies appears to be essential to growth of the cancer. This factor is thought to act by stimulating the growth of new blood capillaries that supply the tumor with nutrients and remove waste products.

tumor necrosis factor

Abbreviation: TNF
A polypeptide protein mediator or cytokine released primarily by macrophages and T lymphocytes. It helps regulate the metabolism of fats, the immune response, and some hematopoietic functions. There are two factors: alpha (TNFa), also called cachectin, produced by macrophages; and beta (TNFß), called lymphotoxin, produced by activated CD4+ T cells. The functions of TNF are similar to those of interleukin-1. A monoclonal antibody against TNFa, infliximab, is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other diseases in which TNFa causes inflammatory damage. Antagonists to tumor necrosis factor, e.g., adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab, are used to treat diseases affected by TNF, such as rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease.
See: cytokine; interleukin-1

uterine factor

Any abnormality of the uterus that produces infertility.

V factor

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

vascular endothelial growth factor

Abbreviation: VEGF
A growth factor produced by endothelial cells that promotes angiogenesis and increases microvascular permeability Inhibitors of VEGF are used to treat a variety of cancers. Their use is associated with hypertension, which sometimes may be severe.

virulence factor

A substance released by a microorganism that allows it to evade host defenses or cause serious injury to its host. Although most virulence factors are released by bacteria for their own benefit, sometimes factors released by one microorganism foster another disease-causing organism.

windchill factor

Loss of heat from exposure of skin to wind. Heat loss is proportional to the speed of the wind. Thus, skin exposed to a wind velocity of 20 mph (32 km/hr) when the temperature is 0°F (-17.8°C) is cooled at the same rate as in still air at -46°F (-43.3°C). Similarly, when the temperature is 20°F (-6.7°C) and the wind is 10, 20, or 35 mph (16.1, 32.2, or 56.3 km/hr), the equivalent skin temperature is -4°, -18°, or -28°F (-20°, -27.8°, or -33.3°C), respectively.

The windchill factor is calculated for dry skin; skin that is wet from any cause and exposed to wind loses heat at a much higher rate. Wind blowing over wet skin can cause frostbite, even on a comfortably warm day as judged by the thermometer.

X factor

A growth factor, identified as hemin, that is needed to grow Haemophilus influenzae in culture.
See: hemin