airway resistance(redirected from R aw)
1. opposition, or counteracting force, as opposition of a conductor to passage of electricity or other energy or substance.
2. the natural ability of a normal organism to remain unaffected by noxious agents in its environment; see also immunity.
3. in psychology or psychiatry, conscious or unconscious defenses against change, preventing repressed material from coming into awareness; they can take such forms as forgetfulness, evasions, embarrassment, mental blocks, denial, anger, superficial talk, intellectualization, or intensification of symptoms. It occurs because the blocked association or understanding would be too threatening to face at this point in the therapy; identification of what point the resistance comes at can be an important indicator of the patient's unconscious patterns.
airway resistance the opposition of the tissues of the air passages to air flow: the mouth-to-alveoli pressure difference divided by the rate of air flow. Symbol RA or RAW.
androgen resistance resistance of target organs to the action of androgens, resulting in any of a spectrum of defects from a normal male phenotype in which men have normal genitalia but infertility to complete androgen resistance in which the individual has a female phenotype. Complete androgen resistance is an extreme form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which the individual is phenotypically female but is of XY chromosomal sex; there may be rudimentary uterus and tubes, but the gonads are typically testes, which may be abdominal or inguinal in position. Called also testicular feminization and testicular feminization syndrome. Incomplete androgen resistance is any of various forms less than the complete type, manifested by a male phenotype with various degrees of ambiguous genitalia such as hypospadias and a small vaginal pouch, a hooded phallus, or a bifid scrotum that may or may not contain gonads.
drug resistance the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of a drug that are lethal to most members of its species.
insulin resistance see insulin resistance.
multidrug resistance (multiple drug resistance) a phenomenon seen in some malignant cell lines: cells that have developed natural resistance to a single cytotoxic compound are also resistant to structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents. Called also cross-resistance.
peripheral resistance resistance to the passage of blood through the small blood vessels, especially the arterioles.
pulmonary vascular resistance the vascular resistance of the pulmonary circulation; the difference between the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and the left atrial filling pressure divided by the cardiac output. Called also total pulmonary vascular resistance.
total peripheral resistance the vascular resistance of the systemic circulation: the difference between the mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure divided by the cardiac output.
total pulmonary resistance (total pulmonary vascular resistance) pulmonary vascular resistance.
vascular resistance the opposition to blood flow in a vascular bed; the pressure drop across the bed divided by the blood flow, conventionally expressed in peripheral resistance units. Symbol R or R.
in physiology, the resistance to the flow of gases during ventilation resulting from obstruction or turbulent flow in the upper and lower airways; to be differentiated during inhalation from resistance to inflation resulting from decreases in pulmonary or thoracic compliance.
airway resistance (Raw)
a measure of the impedance to airflow through the bronchopulmonary system. It is the reciprocal of airway conductance.
airway resistanceA measure of the resistance (in cm H2O) to the flow (in L/min of air in upper airways, which results from natural recoil–resiliency of anatomic structures (oro- and nasopharynx, larynx, and nonrespiratory portions of the lungs, including the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles). Airway resistance testing evaluates airway responsiveness, and includes provocation testing (e.g., bronchial challenge), evaluation of sites of airflow resistance or closures, and characterisation of the type of lung disease. Airway resistance is increased, either focally or globally, in asthma, COPD, and in smokers.
airway resistanceLung physiology A measure of the resistance–in cm H2O to the flow–in L/min of air in upper airways, the result of natural recoil–resiliency of anatomic structures–oro- and nasopharynx, larynx, and nonrespiratory portions of the lungs–trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles through which air passes on the way to the alveoli; assessment of AR evaluates airway responsiveness, provocation testing–eg bronchial challenge, evaluation of sites of airflow resistance or closures, and characterization of the type of lung disease; airway resistance is ↑, either focally or globally in asthma, COPD, and smokers. See Airway responsiveness, Asthma, COPD.
air·way re·sis·tance(ār'wā rĕ-zis'tăns)
physiology Resistance to flow of gases during ventilation due to obstruction or turbulent flow in the upper and lower airways; to be differentiated during inhalation from resistance to inflation due to decreases in pulmonary or thoracic compliance.
air·way re·sis·tance(ār'wā rĕ-zis'tăns)
physiology Impendance to flow of gases during ventilation due to obstruction or turbulent flow in the upper and lower airways; to be differentiated during inhalation from resistance to inflation due to decreases in pulmonary or thoracic compliance.
1. the passage by which air enters and leaves the lungs.
2. a mechanical device used for securing unobstructed respiration during general anesthesia or other occasions in which the patient is not ventilating or exchanging gases properly. Includes an endotracheal tube and a tracheostomy tube.
endotracheal or tracheostomy tubes.
in the unanesthetized animal is usually caused by vomitus or laryngeal spasm due to foreign material in the larynx. In the nonintubated anesthetized animal, it is caused by caudal displacement of the tongue and epiglottis, accumulation of mucus, saliva and blood in the pharynx or laryngeal spasm resulting from that accumulation. In the intubated animal, faulty placement or functioning of the endotracheal tube or kinking of it can cause obstruction of the airway. The signs of obstruction are deep, asphyxial respirations, struggling and great agitation in the conscious animal. Deeply anesthetized animals simply show a decline in respiratory efficiency.
the resistance to airflow through the respiratory tree and any addition to the airway, such as the endotracheal tube and connectors in a closed circuit anesthetic machine.