quaternary ammonium compounds


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quaternary ammonium compounds

Compounds in which the four hydrogen atoms of the ammonium radical are replaced by organic radicals. They are used as antiseptics.

quaternary ammonium compounds

types of chemical disinfecting agent with surfactant and detergent properties, e.g. cetrimide, which is active against Gram-positive bacteria, but which is tissue-toxic and readily inactivated by the presence of organic compounds (see Table 1)
Table 1: Types of chemical disinfectant agents
AgentComment
Phenolic compoundsWidely effective against bacteria and fungi; little action against viruses
Used as a 2% v/v solution to disinfect soiled but not blood-contaminated items and a 1% v/v solution for non-soiled items
Inactivated by blood and cationic detergents (not inactivated by other organic materials or anionic/non-ionic detergents)
'Coal tar derivative' types are suitable for floor cleaning
'Pine' types are poor disinfectants and unsuitable for clinical use
Chlorine compounds, e.g. hypochlorites; dichloroisocyanurates (NaDCC)Effective against microorganisms and viruses, including blood-borne viruses
Easily inactivated by blood and organic matter, thus items must be washed first, before being disinfected with chlorine-containing products
Used as 0.1% (1000 ppm) solution routinely in the clinic, but as a 1% solution (10 000 ppm) to clean up after blood spillages
Manufactured as concentrates (10% solutions), powders or tablets which are dissolved as necessary for immediate use
Note:
• 1 volume of 10% concentrate is diluted with 99 volumes of water to form a solution that contains 0.1% (1000 ppm) available chlorine
• 1 volume of 10% concentrate is diluted with 9 volumes of water to form a solution that contains 1% (10 000 ppm) available chlorine
Iodine compoundsAlcoholic solutions of iodine are effective disinfectants, but cause skin irritation and staining
Iodophores (organic complexes containing iodine, e.g. povidone-iodine) are equally effective but less irritant and staining
Iodophores have a wide spectrum of action against bacteria, fungi, viruses and spore forms, and are used for preoperative skin preparation and wound care
AlcoholsEthyl and isopropyl alcohol have a wide spectrum of action and a rapid onset of effect; they are not very effective against viruses
They are prepared as aqueous solutions (70% ethanol in water to 100%; 60-70% isopropyl alcohol in water to 100%)
They are used for the rapid disinfection of clean skin (alcohol hand gels) and hard surfaces (alcohol-impregnated disposable tissues)
They are used in combination with other antimicrobial agents
Biguanide compounds, e.g. chlorhexidineEffective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but poor action against viruses
Their effectiveness is enhanced and more rapid in onset when diluted with alcohol (0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% isopropyl alcohol)
Inactivated by soap and anionic detergent; not recommended for general environmental use
Widely used in skin preparation, as alcohol or cationic detergent-based products
Triclosan (2,4,4'- thrichlor-2'-hydroxydiphenylether)Effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with little reported toxicity
Prepared as alcoholic and aqueous solutions
Quaternary ammonium compoundsA group of disinfecting agents with surfactant properties
Active against Gram-positive bacteria, but have little action against other microorganisms
5% Cetrimide mixed with 0.5.% chlorhexidine is used as a wound-cleansing agent
GlutaraldehydeA widely effective disinfectant, with good antiviral and sporicidal action, but which is irritant to skin (thus immersed items should be rinsed in sterile water). It is no longer routinely used in podiatry
For disinfection, the item should be immersed in the solution for 20-30 minutes
For sterilization, the item should be immersed in the solution for 3-10 hours
HexachloropheneEffective against Gram-positive bacteria, but little action against other microorganisms
It has largely been replaced by chlorhexidine or povidone-iodine

quaternary

1. fourth in a series.
2. made up of four elements or groups.

quaternary ammonium compounds
synthetic cationic detergents commonly used as disinfectants. They act against cell wall lipids in bacteria. An example is benzalkonium chloride. Effective in teat dips for mastitis control. Called also QUATs.
quaternary structure
the arrangement of separate polypeptide subunits in the structure of a multimeric protein.
References in periodicals archive ?
Terminal disinfection in hospital using Quaternary ammonium compounds by use of a spray - fog technique.
So, the quaternary ammonium compounds dimethyl-di(hydrogenated tallow) alkyl ammonium salt shows ease of crosslinking as compared to other primary amine modifier.
Quaternary ammonium TPBs were synthesized through the reaction of 1 mol of TPB sodium aqueous solution and 1 tool of quaternary ammonium compound (Lin et al.
Does the wide use of quaternary ammonium compounds enhance the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance and thus threaten our health?
The efficacy of three disinfectants containing either sodium hypochlorite (Chlorox, Chlorox Company, CA), quaternary ammonium compounds (Conflikt[R], Decon Laboratories, PA), or 70% isopropyl alcohol were tested and compared with a sterile water control.
Cationic surfactants may be protonated long-chain amines and long-chain quaternary ammonium compounds.
Attached to the nanoparticles are molecules called quaternary ammonium compounds.
Good disinfection of the feet on a daily basis can control the condition and solutions such as 4% Formalin, copper salts, quaternary ammonium compounds, organic acids and products such as Virkon S (Antec Ltd) can be used and can totally suppress the condition.
One of the biggest issues currently facing the industry is that most high care areas continue to rely on a range of chemicals, including various forms of chlorine (chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, etc), branded forms of quaternary ammonium compounds and even bromine or iodine based products, to maintain an acceptable hygiene regime.
You'll need a quaternary cleaner (a cleaner formulated with quaternary ammonium compounds that provide excellent cleaning and disinfection properties) registered with the EPA with a hepatitis B virus (HBV) claim that it can handle blood and other potentially infectious material (i.
The contents at the beginning list page numbers for the chemicals as they appear in the book, but the reader may find the index at the end more helpful because its alphabetical listing includes those chemicals in the addendum and also contains multiple page listings for classes of chemicals such as benzodiazepines, chemical warfare agents, chemotherapeutic agents, metals, and quaternary ammonium compounds.