Glutaminyl cyclase (QC), an enzyme found in animals and plants, catalyzes the cyclization of N-terminal Glutamine, and to a lesser extent Glutamate, to pyroglutamate (1).
Pyroglutamate modification sometimes may lead to negative side effects.
In particular, one amino acid, pyroglutamate
(PCA), is a key component of Natural Moisturizing Factor and enhances blood circulation by modulating constitutive nitric oxide production.
Capping this stub is a rare, circular amino acid called pyroglutamate
Though the N-terminal pyroglutamate
is found in many different peptides in virtually all species, including Drosophila, QC activity has not been observed in Drosophila.
Another study recently demonstrated that Agaricus blazei possesses a potent anti-angiogenic phytochemical, sodium pyroglutamate
, which was determined to exert a triple play of actions-immune-modulatory, anti-tumor and anti-metastatic--in tumor-bearing mice.
Amyloid R protein starting pyroglutamate
at position 3 is a major component of the amyloid deposits in the Alzheimer's disease brain.
A nutrient called phosphatidyl choline (found in eggs and sardines) boosts memory, as does an amino acid called pyroglutamate
(which you get in fish, dairy products, vegetables and fruit).
06/E36 - Pyroglutamate
forms of beta-amyloid peptides with glutaminyl cyclase in neurotransmitter secretory vesicles: Relevance to Alzheimer's disease L.
91) Glycerol Contamination (suppository, Malonate (92) emollients); uremia Mevalonate and/or its lactone N-Acetylaspartate Orotate (93-95) Allopurinol treatment; azauridine; high cell turnover (tissue breakdown, menstruation); folate malabsorption Pyroglutamate
(L- or From glutamine of hydrolyzed D-5-oxoproline) proteins (infant formula); (82, 91, 96-102) acetaminophen; vigabatrin; fludoxacillin, netilmicin (?
Other acids were also included in preliminary experiments: pyroglutamate
, glycerate, p-hydroxyphenyllactate, sebacate, citrate, adipate, succinate, glutarate, and oxalate.