phenazopyridine

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phenazopyridine

 [fen″ah-zo-pēr´ĭ-dēn]
a urinary tract analgesic, used as the hydrochloride salt; administered orally.

phenazopyridine

(fen-az-oh-peer-i-deen) ,

Azo-Standard

(trade name),

Baridium

(trade name),

Phenazo

(trade name),

Prodium

(trade name),

Pyridium

(trade name),

Pyridium Plus

(trade name),

UTI Relief

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: nonopioid analgesics
Pharmacologic: urinary tract analgesics
Pregnancy Category: B

Indications

Provides relief from the following urinary tract symptoms, which may occur in association with infection or following urologic procedures:
  • Pain,
  • Itching,
  • Burning,
  • Urgency,
  • Frequency.

Action

Acts locally on the urinary tract mucosa to produce analgesic or local anesthetic effects.
Has no antimicrobial activity.

Therapeutic effects

Diminished urinary tract discomfort.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Appears to be well absorbed following oral administration.
Distribution: Unknown. Small amounts cross the placenta.
Metabolism and Excretion: Rapidly excreted unchanged in the urine.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile (urinary analgesia)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknown5–6 hr6–8 hr

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity;Glomerulonephritis;Severe hepatitis, uremia, or renal failure;Renal insufficiency;Glucose-6–phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
Use Cautiously in: Hepatitis; Obstetric / Lactation: Safety not established.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • headache
  • vertigo

Gastrointestinal

  • hepatotoxicity
  • nausea

Genitourinary

  • bright-orange urine (most frequent)
  • renal failure

Dermatologic

  • rash

Hematologic

  • hemolytic anemia
  • methemoglobinemia

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

None significant.

Route/Dosage

Oral (Adults) 200 mg 3 times daily for 2 days.
Oral (Children) 4 mg/kg 3 times daily for 2 days.

Availability (generic available)

Tablets: 95 mgOTC, 100 mg, 100 mgOTC, 200 mgOTC, 200 mg

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Assess patient for urgency, frequency, and pain on urination prior to and throughout therapy.
  • Lab Test Considerations: Renal function should be monitored periodically during course of therapy.
    • Interferes with urine tests based on color reactions (glucose, ketones, bilirubin, steroids, protein).

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Acute pain (Indications)
Impaired urinary elimination (Indications)

Implementation

  • Medication should be discontinued after pain or discomfort is relieved (usually 2 days for treatment of urinary tract infection). Concurrent antibiotic therapy should continue for full prescribed duration.
  • Oral: Administer medication with or following meals to decrease GI irritation. Do not crush, break, or chew tablet.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to take medication exactly as directed. If a dose is missed, take as soon as remembered unless almost time for next dose.
  • Advise patient that while phenazopyridine administration is stopped once pain or discomfort is relieved, concurrent antibiotic therapy must be continued for full duration of therapy. Do not save unused portion of phenazopyridine without consulting health care professional.
  • Inform patient that drug causes reddish-orange discoloration of urine that may stain clothing or bedding. Sanitary napkin may be worn to avoid clothing stains. May also cause staining of soft contact lenses.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional if rash, skin discoloration, or unusual tiredness occurs.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decrease in pain and burning on urination.

phenazopyridine

/phen·a·zo·pyr·i·dine/ (fen″ah-zo-pir´ĭ-dēn) a urinary tract analgesic, used as the hydrochloride salt.

phenazopyridine

an azo dye, used as a urinary analgesic and antiseptic in humans. Causes hemolytic anemia and hepatic injury in cats.