An additional pseudoword
reading test with words based on the characters trained in FonoMix was used.
correctly read received 1 point (internal consistency: alpha = .
A training session with three word and three pseudoword
stimuli preceded the actual task, and in the actual task two fillers (one word, one pseudoword
) served as warm-up items before the main list of targets.
The Word Reading Task (WRT) and the Pseudoword
Reading Task (PWRT) are Reading Aloud instruments each consisting of 88 words and 88 pseudowords
printed on an A4 page, font Ariel size 14 (Pinheiro, 2013).
The participants were required to decide if the word was a true word or a pseudoword
, and then to press the key corresponding to the correct category with their right index finger.
The following memory tasks were used for this study: digit span (forward and backward) (maximum score: 28 points), pseudoword
span (maximum score: 20 points), visuospatial working memory (similar to Corsi Blocks, but on 2 D, maximum score: 28 points), immediate recall of a list of (nine) words, immediate recall of (nine) figures showed to children (visuoverbal episodic memory) and semantic memory (4 general knowledge questions--1 point each).
Those in the training group exhibited enhanced growth in speech-to-print matching, phoneme awareness, spelling, pseudoword
reading and on a word-learning task.
Bearing in mind that the pseudowords
were constructed using existing stems, we might suggest that the pseudoword
stems had activated their morphological candidates, just as they would have done if they had formed part of real words.
Exploring the role of base words and suffixes and pseudoword
processing: Evidence from young French readers.
Add, omit, or reverse phonemes, and identify the resulting word or pseudoword
The demographic characteristics as well as means for the verbal ability and real and pseudoword
reading measures are listed in Table D.
Does the similarity of form with the existing words in the two languages speed up reaction times (RTs) and is there an attempt made to access any potential (although nonexisting) semantic information in the process of pseudoword