The active substance in GLIOLAN, aminolevulinic acid (ALA), is a photoreceptive compound which is absorbed by cells in the body, where it is converted by enzymes into fluorescent chemicals, particularly protoporphyrin IX
N-alkylporphyrins distort or bend protoporphyrin IX
, inhibiting the production of heme (as in hemoglobin).
Kennedy JC, Pottier RH: Endogenous protoporphyrin IX
, a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy.
Measurements of transferrin receptor and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin IX
(ZnPPIX) concentrations have been suggested as screening tools to detect iron deficiency (1,2).
One of the earliest features of griseofulvin exposure is a hepatic porphyria characterized by the accumulation of protoporphyrin IX
(De Matteis and Rimington 1963; Weston Hurst and Paget 1963).
The structure of a naturally occurring porphyrin, Protoporphyrin IX
, is shown in Fig.
Kolling analyzed the Soret band energies of nickel protoporphyrin IX
dimethyl ester in a set of 16 solvents with varying polarities and varying polarizabilities and concluded, by grouping solvents according to the Chastrette-Purcell generalized classification system, that the dependence of the Sore t band energies upon solvent polarizability effects is insignificant (Kolling 1989).
EPP is caused by an enzyme (ferrochelatase) deficiency which leads to a build-up of protoporphyrin IX
(PPIX) in the body, mostly in the skin and liver.
Coproporphyrin III tetramethyl ester and protoporphyrin IX
dimethyl ester were purchased from Sigma Chemicals and used as received.
In our initial work, the photophysical and photochemical characteristics of the photosensitizing agents protoporphyrin IX
(PpIX) and Verteporfin were investigated as a function of TPE (3, 4).
Detection of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity by imaging 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX
Compared to normal tissue, high-grade gliomas (or brain tumors) metabolize 5-ALA to a fluorescent compound called protoporphyrin ix
, a structure similar to that of chlorophyll found in plants.