We examined the effects of floral damage on pollen receipt by counting the number of pollen grains on the stigmas of damaged and undamaged flowers from five exposed plants and five protected plants in Array 2 on 4 April 1995, when beetle infestation is at its peak (Krupnick et al.
We compared the standing crop of fruit of exposed and protected plants each year by repeated-measures ANOVAs.
To measure the total effect of florivory on female reproductive success, seed production during the months of herbivore activity (January-June 1994) and during the entire year (January-October 1994) was analyzed by comparing the number of seeds per plant among the four plant treatments (exposed plants in exposed plots, exposed plants in mixed plots, protected plants in mixed plots, and protected plants in protected plots).
To determine if exposure to or protection from herbivory leads to pollen limitation, we hand-pollinated all hermaphroditic flowers on a random sample of 10 exposed and 10 protected plants ("hand-pollinated") from Array 2 every 5 d from 25 February 1994 through 11 October 1995.
The outcrossing rates of exposed and protected plants were compared by a two-tailed z test (K.
On the other hand, a person who violates the state or federal restrictions on public land by destroying protected plants
or trying to sell them could face a fine of $6,250 or more and a year's imprisonment.
Plants in the mixed plots typically received intermediate levels of attack, with protected plants receiving more damage than protected plants in protected plots, and exposed plants receiving less damage than exposed plants in exposed plots (Krupnick and Weis 1998).
The effect of florivory on flowering display was estimated on exposed and protected plants by counting the number of developing inflorescences (damaged and undamaged) and the number of flowering inflorescences on a regular schedule though the flowering season.
We also compared exposed and protected plants within the mixed plots.
Pollen availability was estimated by counting the number of undamaged dehiscent anthers per flower on all 1-6 d old flowers on six exposed plants and six protected plants in the natural population.
Likewise, protected plants had to have fewer than half their total flowers showing damage (proportion of damaged flowers per plant: mean [+ or -] 1 SE = 0.