promoter

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pro·mo·ter

(prō-mō'tĕr),
1. In chemistry, a substance that increases the activity of a catalyst.
2. In molecular biology, a DNA sequence at which RNA polymerase binds and initiates transcription.

promoter

/pro·mo·ter/ (pro-mo´ter)
1. a segment of DNA usually occurring upstream from a gene coding region and acting as a controlling element in the expression of that gene.
2. a substance in a catalyst that increases its rate of activity.
3. a type of epigenetic carcinogen that promotes neoplastic growth only after initiation by another substance.

promoter

(prə-mō′tər)
n.
1. One that promotes, especially an active supporter or advocate.
2. A financial and publicity organizer, as of a boxing match or an artistic performance.
3. Genetics The region of an operon that acts as the initial binding site for RNA polymerase.

promoter

[-mō′tər]
Etymology: L, promovere, to move forward
1 a DNA sequence that initiates transcription of the genetic code.
2 a cocarcinogen that encourages cells altered by initiators to reproduce more rapidly than normal, increasing the probability of malignant transformation. Examples include chlorophenothane (DDT), phenobarbital, saccharin, sunlight, and some chemicals in cigarette smoke. The effects of promoters are sometimes reversible.

pro·mo·ter

(prŏ-mō'tĕr)
1. chemistry A substance that increases the activity of a catalyst.
2. molecular biology A DNA sequence at which RNA polymerase binds and initiates transcription.

promoter

In genetics, a nucleotide sequence at the start of a gene to which RNA polymerase must bind before the process of transcription can start. The promoter is located UPSTREAM of the gene it regulates.

promoter

a cis- acting (see CIS -ACTIVE) NUCLEOTIDE sequence on a DNA molecule which promotes the initiation of TRANSCRIPTION by allowing the assembly of proteins, including RNA POLYMERASE (or its equivalent), in transcriptional complexes. see OPERON MODEL. The promoter generally lies UPSTREAM of the transcription start site.

promoter

a specific DNA sequence to which RNA polymerase binds and signals where RNA synthesis (transcription) should begin.

internal promoter
a class of enhancers which are gene-specific sequences that increase transcription.
promoter region
the non-coding nucleotide sequence at the transcription start region that is characterized by the presence of a number of conserved or consequence sequences.

Patient discussion about promoter

Q. I am interested in social service. So what can I do to promote a healthy pregnancy?

A. Hi friend, once you're pregnant, a regular checkup is the key. Your health professional might want to monitor your baby's growth and watch for problems that can only be detected by checking your blood pressure, urine, and blood regularly. Anything you do that harms your body harms your fetus. Take special care: To avoid: tobacco smoking, alcohol, drugs, chemicals, radiation (as from X-rays), and sources of infection. Keep your body temperature from getting too high [over 100.4° (38°)] by treating any fevers with acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) and avoiding exercise or activity that overheats you. Also avoid high-temperature hot tubs and saunas. Take extra-good care of yourself while you're pregnant. Everything healthy you do for your body benefits your growing fetus. Rest when you need it, eat well, and exercise regularly.

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References in periodicals archive ?
A previous study reported that the mouse and human NANOG promoter regions were capable of expressing GFP reporter construct in both mouse and human ESCs, and differentiation by chemical inducers such as retinoic acid decreased transcriptional activity of NANOG promoters.
Cdx-2 polymorphism in the promoter region of the human vitamin D receptor gene determines susceptibility to fracture in the elderly.
This enzyme recognizes the double-stranded T7 promoter region of the DNA molecule in (e), and drives the production of large numbers of RNA transcript copies of the region.
However, AChE may not be the only target of dioxin in the cholinergic system, because putative DRE sites are also present in the promoter region of acetylcholine receptor (Sun et al.
Bisulfite-modified DNA samples were amplified by methylation-specific PCR by using methylation-specific primers and unmethylation-specific primers for the promoter region of SOCS1 and SOCS3 genes, as described by Liu et al.
15,16) Genotypic variation may induce conformational changes in the promoter region that increase binding affinity of transcription factors, such as NF-[kappa]B.
The results from the present study suggest that p16 promoter region methylation is observed in human ovarian cancers which may play a role in the inactivation of the p16 gene.
In one of the latest study which was performed in the Finnish population showed conflicting results as they have found IL-10 promoter region haplotype GCC (-1082G/A, -819C/T and -592C/A) associated with decreased arterial elasticity in 24-39 years aged CHD patients.
The ctxA promoter region from -76 to +1 is sufficient for ToxT-dependent transcription.
All 6 cases of OSSN showed hypomethylation at the DNMT3L promoter region as compared with the control samples, as shown in Figure 1.
The gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene is known to be regulated by DNA methylation at the promoter region (McGowan et al.
Retinoid receptor binding sites have been identified in the promoter region for MMP-21 expression, thus retinoic acid upregulates MMP21 mRNA in monocytic U937 cells [1] and the enzyme has been found in cancer cells.