If sufficient neurotransmitter is released, an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic projection neuron
and the painful stimulus is relayed to higher brain centers.
Organization of Corticostriatal Projection Neuron
Testing of six adult male zebra finches, which do not modify their songs, revealed projection neuron
increases roughly comparable to those observed among canaries injected in May.
Each Kenyon cell claw is wrapped tightly around only one projection neuron
, meaning that it receives a signal from just one type of input.
This projection neuron
forwards carbon dioxide information to the region in the fly's brain where the animals can gauge internal and external signals.
In Drosophila, Kenyon cells (KCs), the neurons underlying olfactory associative memory, receive excitation from projection neurons
(PNs) as well as feedback inhibition from a single identified neuron ( APL ).
The second type, called corticofugal projection neurons
, are significant for ALS, as they include corticospinal motor neurons that die in the disease.
of the vSUB (as well as the mPFC) are glutamatergic in nature, thus suggesting that these cells engage in transsynaptic inhibition of the PVN following activation by stress.
On entering the spinal cord, nociceptors synapse with numerous interneurons and also projection neurons
that travel directly up the spinal cord to the brainstem, thalamus and higher brain centres.
Others have shown that up to 40% of the neurons in the MD are small presumably inhibitory (gabaergic) neurons whereas the large neurons are presumed to be predominantly excitatory projection neurons
to the cerebral cortex (Dewulf, 1971; Dorph Petersen et al.
In the brain region known as the ventral tegmental area (VTA), opioids bind to the receptor subtypes [mu]- and perhaps [delta]-receptors found on GABA interneurons or GABA projection neurons
that interact with dopaminergic neurons, causing disinhibition of dopaminergic cell firing (Wise 1998).
There, peripheral nerve fibers carrying pain messages release substance P onto receptors on so-called projection neurons
, which then forward the unpleasant news along the spinal cord to the brain.