Androgens are essential prohormones
for estrogen synthesis.
are listed as permitted substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list.
Natriuretic peptide production can also be assessed by measuring the N-terminal fragments from their prohormones
in plasma, because these fragments constitute stable markers in vitro and in vivo.
In contrast to other prohormones
, proBNP does not contain a C-terminal-flanking region.
Plasma measurements of cardiac-derived peptides and their prohormones
are established markers of cardiac dysfunction, with normal concentrations excluding a diagnosis ofheart failure.
Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) confirmed the positives contained prohormones
of the banned male sex hormone testosterone and said in an email to Reuters its investigation of Merritt s case was continuing.
A-type (atrial) natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and the amino-terminal fragments of their prohormones
(NTproANP and NT-proBNP, respectively) (1, 2).
Physiologic and pathologic states leading to volume expansion and/or increased tension on cardiac myocytes lead to up-regulation of signals for the production and secretion of cardiac natriuretic prohormones
, including A-, B-, and C-type natriuretic peptides (1).