prior probability

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Related to Prior probabilities: Posterior probabilities, Uninformative prior

pri·or prob·a·bil·i·ty

the best rational assessment of the probability of an outcome on the basis of established knowledge before the present experiment is performed. For instance, the prior probability of the daughter of a carrier of hemophilia being herself a carrier of hemophilia is 1/2. But if the daughter already has an affected son, the posterior probability that she is a carrier is unity, whereas if she has a normal child, the posterior probability that she is a carrier is 1/3. See: Bayes theorem.


(1) The number of people with a specific condition or attribute at a specified time divided by the total number of people in the population.
(2) The number or proportion of cases, events or conditions in a given population.
A term defined in the context of a 4-cell diagnostic matrix (2 X 2 table) as the amount of people with a disease, X, relative to a population.

Veterinary medicine
(1) A clinical estimate of the probability that an animal has a given disease, based on current knowledge (e.g., by history of physical exam) before diagnostic testing.
(2) As defined in a population, the probability at a specific point in time that an animal randomly selected from a group will have a particular condition, which is equivalent to the proportion of individuals in the group that have the disease. Group prevalence is calculated by dividing the number of individuals in a group that have a disease by the total number of individuals in the group at risk of the disease. Prevalence is a good measure of the amount of a chronic, low-mortality disease in a population, but is not of the amount of short duration or high-fatality disease. Prevalence is often established by cross-sectional surveys.

prior probability

Decision making The likelihood that something may occur or be associated with an event based on its prevalence in a particular situation. See Medical mistake, Representative heurisic.

prior probability,

n the extent of belief held by a patient and practitioner in the ability of a specific therapeutic approach to produce a positive outcome before treatment begins. This level of belief should be taken into consideration by the patient and practitioner to make a decision as to whether the treatment should be used or to permit the therapy to continue.


the basis of statistics. The relative frequency of occurrence of a specific event as the outcome of an experiment when the experiment is conducted randomly on very many occasions. The probability of the event occurring is the number of times it did occur divided by the number of times that it could have occurred. Defined as:$$\hbox{p}={\hbox{x}\over (\hbox{x+y})$$

p = probability, x = positive outcomes, y = negative outcomes.
prior probability
estimation of the probability that a particular phenomenon or character will appear before putting the patient to the test, e.g. testing the probable productivity of a patient by testing its forebears.
subjective probability
the measure of the assessor's belief in the probability of a proposition being correct.
References in periodicals archive ?
These probabilities are called the prior probabilities.
The effects of changing prior probabilities of channel occupation or vacancy are simulated and it is concluded that these effects are considerable.
In civil trials, the prior probabilities as a normative matter
All of the prior probabilities, Q(j|i), are shown in Table 6.
Investigating physicians' adherence to their prior probabilities during clinical decision making is important to decipher cognitive processes; furthermore, it may reveal the extent to which gender differences in CHD are due to reliance on prior data.
The prior probabilities are given to the observable assertions [A.
While, prior probabilities, probabilities based on initial information, can be obtained from statistical data using the relative frequencies, conditional probabilities can be elicited from experts or calculated using different types of mathematical models.
The prior probabilities are the overall odds of having a positive hair or urine assay.
Different prior probabilities and misclassification cost ratios are used in this study.
xs]) of those actions depend on the (unconditional) prior probabilities ([[pi].
Furthermore issues such as the importance of the initial prior probabilities and convergence remain to be investigated.