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The comparison revealed that the thalamus, pretectum, and midbrain regions now found in vertebrates correspond to a single region in the lancelet brain, suggesting a common evolutionary and developmental origin.
Supranuclear control of vertical eye movements is subserved by diffuse cortical projections from the frontal and supplementary eye fields reaching the rostral interstitial nuclei of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF) and the interstitial nuclei of Cajal (inC) at the level of the midbrain pretectum (7).
In addition, the rostral superior colliculus projects to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus via the primary, shorter route through the pretectum and also through a secondary, longer route through the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (pons), cerebellar cortex, and cerebellar nuclei.
Upward gaze palsy results from compression on the pretectum and superior colliculi
A direct OKN pathway from the retina to the pretectum (nucleus of the optic tract) as seen in other animals is either weak or non-existent in humans.