of olvetolate by a hemp transferase yields cannabigerolic acid, the precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol.
Lonafarnib inhibits the prenylation
step of HDV replication inside liver cells and blocks the virus life cycle at the stage of assembly.
In addition to cholesterol, the pathway generates several other molecules relevant to general cellular metabolism, such as farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate, essential in the prenylation
of a variety of proteins including the small GTPase Ras, which play a critical role in cell-cycle progression.
These modifications occur in proteins that induce cancers, and scientists believe that drugs that block protein prenylation
can be a means to prevent the spread of the disease in an individual.
Conversely, another in vitro study has shown that statins stimulate endothelial detachment and MP release by inhibiting prenylation
Nitrogen- containing bisphosphonates inhibit the mevalonate pathway and prevent post-translational prenylation
of GTP-binding proteins, including Ras.
A very promising anticancer and antimalarial target is the heterodimeric zinc-containing protein farnesyltransferase (FT), which is one of the key enzymes in post-translational modification of proteins by prenylation
, an important mechanism of cellular regulation.
To function effectively, these G proteins need 15-carbon or 20-carbon side chains, which are normally added though a process called prenylation
This may be due in part to the geranylgeranyl side chain of vitamin K2 which is thought to inhibit the mevalonate pathway, thus preventing the prenylation
of growth factors required for osteoclast activation in much the same way as nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates.
Furthermore, a variety of studies indicated that prenylation
group enhances biological activities due to increased lipophilicity, thus affinity to biological membranes, and their interactions with target proteins (Simons et al.
This pathway is essential in fungi, protozoans, bacteria and other micro-organisms for the synthesis of cell membrane components, prenylation
proteins and as a secondary source of carbon.
Understanding hepatitis delta virus and HBsAg kinetics during treatment with prenylation
inhibitor lonafarnib via mathematical modeling.