Temporarily disrupting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
function appears to alter how people use information about harm and culpability to render these decisions.
The lateral prefrontal cortex
may diminish fear by decreasing activity in the amygdala similarly to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex
, which inhibits the amygdala during extinction.
In 1989, Knight et al showed that unilateral prefrontal lesions increase the amplitude of middle-latency auditory evoked potentials, suggesting that the prefrontal cortex
exerts an early inhibitory modulation of input to the primary auditory cortex in humans.
Two weeks after cessation of ATR exposure, rats were sacrificed by decapitation, brains were removed, and hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex
, nucleus accumbens, and striatum were dissected on ice and frozen for HPLC analysis.
This restores dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex
The study found that the most intense negative thinkers had higher levels of right prefrontal cortex
activity and a pronounced startle reflex.
Monitoring single neurons within the right prefrontal cortex
, the researchers found that these cells responded remarkably rapidly to unpleasant images, including pictures of mutilations and scenes of war.
The researchers examined tissue from the upper layers of the prefrontal cortex
, an area of the brain used in complex reasoning, and counted two types of synapses.
Neuronal Mechanisms in Prefrontal Cortex
Underlying Adaptive Choice Behavior
Sometimes, a part of the brain called the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex
was more active during the rest period immediately before participants were asked to look at photos.
They include the hypothalamus; the striatal region, which includes the putamen and caudate and is in charge of motivation and reward; the limbic region, where emotion and memory reside; and the cortical region, which includes the prefrontal cortex
, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex and handles the integration and processing of the brain.
Now, Mount Sinai scientists have begun to look elsewhere, focusing instead on synaptic health in the prefrontal cortex