The size differential between predator and prey was often less than 20 mm.
Based on this comparison, naticids are clearly able to consume bivalves with similar or larger shell lengths than their own, although the maximum size differential between predator and prey can differ markedly among prey species (Kitchell et al.
This ratio (y-axis) was plotted on a graph using Microsoft Excel 2007 against the months (x-axis) and the most horizontal straight line was chosen to represent the best indicator of association between a predator and prey
species (Inayat et al.
Longstaff (1980) analyzed the components of functional response of a predatory mite in relation to the temperature and argued that increasing temperature could extend the satiation level of the predator and the length of digestion pause could be reduced due to the (i) greatest distance from which the predator reacts to a prey by attacking it (ii) speed of the movement of both predator and prey
, and (iii) proportion of attacks started which are successful.
If both predator and prey
are moving, the relative velocity between predator and prey
Thus, when the predator and prey
species i undergo cycles, the long-term per capita growth rate of the prey must he zero, so that
Holling (1959a, 1966) considered that there were three basic components of functional responses of predators to prey: the rate of successful search (determined by the reactive distance of the predator to its prey, the rates of movements of both the predator and prey
, and the predator's capture success), the time the predator was exposed to the prey, and the handling time (the sum of time spent pursuing, subduing, eating, and digesting prey).
The interaction has to do with bluefish driving prey nearer the surface and with alterations of bird predator and prey
It is difficult to compare the results from this partially open system, allowing predator and prey
emigration, to previous studies.
Thus, although we may not use the same explicit form for the predator-prey equations, we agree on the underlying rationale, that changes in predator and prey
numbers should be related to consumer/resource ratios.
1] is stable, any oscillations in predator and prey
densities will eventually be damped out and both species will coexist at the levels [x.
Detailed information on methods and behavioral repertoires of predator and prey
fish will be published elsewhere (Eklov and Persson, unpublished manuscript).