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/glu·cose/ (gloo´kōs)
1. a six-carbon aldose occurring as the d- form and found as a free monosaccharide in fruits and other plants or combined in glucosides and di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. It is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism, and is the chief source of energy for living organisms, its utilization being controlled by insulin. Excess glucose is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver and muscles for use as needed and, beyond that, is converted to fat and stored as adipose tissue. Glucose appears in the urine in diabetes mellitus. In pharmaceuticals, called dextrose.

liquid glucose  a thick, sweet, syrupy liquid obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch and consisting chiefly of dextrose, with dextrins, maltose, and water; used as a pharmaceutic aid.
glucose 1-phosphate  an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism.
glucose 6-phosphate  an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism.


1. A monosaccharide sugar, C6H12O6, that is used by living things to obtain energy through the process of aerobic respiration within cells. It is the principal circulating sugar in the blood of humans and other mammals.
2. A colorless to yellowish syrupy mixture of dextrose, maltose, and dextrins containing about 20 percent water, used in confectionery, alcoholic fermentation, tanning, and treating tobacco. Also called starch syrup.


Etymology: Gk, glykys, sweet
a simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits, and a major source of energy present in the blood and animal body fluids. Glucose, when ingested or produced by the digestive hydrolysis of double sugars and starches, is absorbed into the blood from the intestines by a facilitated transport mechanism using carrier proteins. Excess glucose in circulation is normally polymerized within the liver and muscles as glycogen, which is hydrolyzed to glucose and liberated as needed. The determination of blood glucose levels is an important diagnostic test in diabetes and other disorders. Prepared glucose is a syrupy sweetening agent. Pharmaceutic preparations of glucose are widely used in the treatment of many disorders. Normal adult blood glucose levels range from 70 to 115 mg/dL (4 to 6 mmol/L), with generally higher levels after 50 years of age. See also dextrose, glycogen.


Biochemistry The hexose sugar that is the main source of energy in mammals. See Random glucose.


A dextrorotatory monosaccharide found in a free form in fruits and other parts of plants, and in combination in glucosides, glycogen, disaccharides, and polysaccharides (starch cellulose); the chief source of energy in human metabolism, the final product of carbohydrate digestion, and the principal sugar of the blood; insulin is required for the use of glucose by cells; in diabetes mellitus, the level of glucose in the blood is excessive, and it also appears in the urine.
Synonym(s): d-glucose.


Grape or corn sugar. Glucose is a simple monosaccharide sugar present in the blood as the basic fuel of the body. Glucose is essential for life; a severe drop in the blood levels rapidly leads to coma and death. It is stored in the liver and the muscles in a polymerized form called GLYCOGEN. It is derived from carbohydrates in the diet, but in conditions of shortage can be synthesized from fats or proteins. The sugar is on the WHO official drug list.




an important hexose sugar with an ALDOSE structure that occurs in two forms, alpha and beta; it has the general formula C6 H12 O6 and is found in sweet fruits, especially ripe grapes. Glucose is formed in the CALVIN CYCLE of PHOTOSYNTHESIS and acts as a primary energy supply for both plant and animal cells, although usually it is converted to an insoluble form for long-term storage: STARCH in plants, GLYCOGEN in animals. see MONOSACCHARIDE for structure.


A simple sugar produced when carbohydrates are broken down in the small intestine. It is the primary source of energy for the body. Various tests that measure blood glucose levels are used in diagnosing insulin resistance.


a hexose (monosaccharide) found in certain foods, and in the circulating blood and cells of all animals; of major importance as a source of energy in all tissues, and essential for some. Ingestion of carbohydrates provides glucose for replenishment and for accumulation of liver and muscle glycogen. When there is overconsumption of carbohydrate, excess glucose is used in the formation of triglycerides which are stored in adipose tissue. Glucose metabolism is mainly controlled by the hormones insulin and glucagon. The glucocorticoid hormones from the adrenal cortex and growth hormone from the anterior pituitary are also involved. See also blood glucose.


product of complete hydrolysis of cellulose, starch and glycogen; principal cellular energy source; free glucose occurs in blood and urine of patients with uncontrolled/poorly controlled diabetes mellitus


A dextrorotatory monosaccharide found in a free form in fruits and other parts of plants, and in combination in glucosides, glycogen, disaccharides, and polysaccharides; chief source of energy in human metabolism, the final product of carbohydrate digestion, and the principal sugar of the blood; insulin is required for the use of glucose by cells; in diabetes mellitus, the level of glucose in the blood is excessive, and it also appears in the urine.
Synonym(s): d-glucose.

glucose (gloo´kōs),

n a six-carbon (hexose) sugar that is the principal sugar in blood and serves as a major metabolic source of energy.
glucose, casual plasma,
n the amount of glucose in the blood at any time, unrelated to eating.
glucose, fasting plasma (FPG),
n a self-administered test of blood glucose levels for diabetes patients. The blood is tested after at least 8 hours of fasting. If results of the test are consistently at or above 126 mg/dL, the patient is commonly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.
glucose meter,
n an electronic device used to measure blood glucose levels that can be used by a patient at home. The device provides an accurate reading of blood glucose level with only a drop of blood from a pricked finger.
glucose oxidase,
n an antibacterial flavoprotein enzyme obtained from
P. notatum and other fungi. It is antibacterial in the presence of glucose and oxygen.
glucose, postprandial plasma,
n the level of glucose in the blood plasma based on a sample of blood taken after ingesting a meal; used to diagnose diabetes.
glucose tolerance, impaired,
n one category of oral glucose tolerance test results. The diagnosis is not necessarily indicative of diabetes, but the patient may be at risk of diabetes mellitus and heart disease.
glucose tolerance test,
n a metabolic test that measures the ability of the body to metabolize carbohydrates. A patient is administered a standard dose of glucose, and blood and urine samples are measured for glucose levels at periodic intervals following administration. It is most often used to assist in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

glucose, d-glucose

a simple sugar, a monosaccharide in certain foodstuffs, especially fruit, and in normal blood; the major source of energy for many living organisms. See also dextrose.
Glucose, whose molecular formula is C6H12O6, is the end product of carbohydrate digestion; other monosaccharides (fructose and galactose) are largely converted into glucose. Glucose is the only monosaccharide present in significant amounts in the body fluids. The oxidation of glucose produces energy for the body cells; the rate of metabolism is controlled by a number of hormones the most important of which are insulin and glucagon. Glucose that is not needed for energy is stored in the form of glycogen as a source of potential energy, readily available when needed. Most of the glycogen is stored in the liver and muscle cells. When these and other body cells are saturated with glycogen, the excess glucose is converted into fat and stored as adipose tissue. See also hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia.

radioactive glucose used experimentally.
liquid glucose
a thick syrupy, sweet liquid, consisting chiefly of dextrose, with dextrins, maltose and water, obtained by incomplete hydrolysis of starch; used as a flavoring agent, as a food, and in the treatment of dehydration.
an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism.
a liver (and kidney) enzyme that irreversibly cleaves glucose-6-phosphate to free glucose and phosphate; important in glucose homeostasis.
an intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism.
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)
a regulatory enzyme in the metabolism of glucose-6-phosphate. A deficiency of the enzyme in the erythrocyte results in a hemolytic anemia; an inherited abnormality in humans, rats and mice and acquired in animals in phenothiazine toxicity and ingestion of kale.
glucose phosphate isomerase
converts glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate and the reverse reaction.
glucose suppression test
suppression of blood levels of growth hormone by the intravenous administration of glucose is used to diagnose acromegaly.
glucose tolerance factor (GTF)
a naturally occurring substance containing chromium which potentiates the effects of insulin.
glucose tolerance test
a test of the body's ability to utilize carbohydrates. It is often used to detect abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism such as occur in diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and liver and adrenocortical dysfunction. If administered orally, it may also be used to assess the absorptive capacity of the small intestine.

Patient discussion about glucose

Q. What difference does fructose makes to a diabetic with respect to glucose? I am diabetic with type 2 NIDDM. My colleague with the same NIDDM type2 has a better glycemic control than me. He follows strict diet. He prefers fructose sugar and avoids other sugar as much as possible. He suggested me the same. What difference does fructose makes to a diabetic with respect to glucose?

A. All carbohydrates—like starch and sugars like dextrose, maltose and glucose must be controlled for high consumption by a diabetic. Whereas fructose sugar had a slight different metabolic route inside the body and it does not requires insulin. Glucose requires insulin. As a diabetic lacks insulin production; the glucose increases the sugar level of the body but fructose is out of this system of functioning by our body and makes a diabetic to control it well. The energy level of glucose and fructose are almost similar.

Q. When will I have the Glucose Tolerance Test? I am pregnant and wanted to know when I need to have the Glucose Tolerance Test and what is the test like.

A. The test is given between week 24 and week 28 of the pregnancy. First you drink glucose, which is very sweet. You can mix it will water to help it go down easier. Then, after an hour you will have a blood test to check your glucose levels.

Q. What Do my Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Results Mean? I had an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test last week. I am 26 weeks pregnant. The results I got are 132 mg/dL. What does this mean?

A. If your blood glucose level was greater than 130 mg/dL, your provider will likely recommend you take another diabetes screening test that requires you to fast (not eat anything) before the test. During this second test, called the 100-gram oral glucose tolerance test, your blood glucose level will be tested four times during a three-hour period after drinking the cola-like drink. If two out of the four blood tests are abnormal, you are considered to have gestational diabetes.

More discussions about glucose
References in periodicals archive ?
The in vitro study showed an inhibitory effect of MRD on [alpha]-glucosidase, and we therefore examined if it could exert this inhibitory effect on an elevated postprandial glucose level in rats fed a high-maltose diet.
The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each meal for each participant, representing the 'incremental glucose area' or postprandial glucose exposure.
Otherwise, postprandial glucose peaks will not be controlled.
Lixisenatide significantly reduced the mean change from baseline two-hours postprandial glucose by respectively -4.
18%, respectively, after adjustments for relevant demographic and clinical features, including both fasting and postprandial glucose (6).
Fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin levels were measured with an oral glucose tolerance test.
The results indicated that an intake of vinegar (about 15ml), either by drinking it or having vinegared food, can suppress a rise in the postprandial glucose level.
TZDs lower fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations as well as free fatty acid concentrations.
Secondary assessment includes regular measurement of both fasting, preprandial, and postprandial glucose levels.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of transglucosidase (TG) on postprandial glucose concentrations in healthy subjects.