Commercial lecithin is a mixture of several natural phospholipids (phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl inositol
, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, and phosphatidic acid) in oil.
This leads to employment of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, followed by activation of phosphatidyl inositol
3 kinase (PI3K) and subsequent translocation of glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4) and glucose uptake by the cells (Wilcox 2005).
Thus, depression is accompanied by increased levels of plasma IgG antibodies against oxidized LDL; and increased IgM-mediated immune responses against membrane fatty acids, like phosphatidyl inositol
(Pi); oleic, palmitic, and myristic acid; and NO modified amino-acids, e.
Apigenin and quercetin are inhibitors of the phosphatidyl inositol
kinase (PI3K) pathway (Jeong 1999).
A major pathway for metabolic effects of insulin and other growth factors is phosphatidyl inositol
Its major function relies on its phosphatase activity and subsequent antagonism of the phosphatidyl inositol
3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway.
Inositol Phospholipid Metabolism and Phosphatidyl Inositol
Data on certain early key events in the T cell activation pathways, obtained from iron-deficient murine splenic T lymphocytes, show reductions in hydrolysis of cell membrane phosphatidyl inositol
4, 5 bisphosphate, protein kinase C activation, and interleukin-2 secretion.
Calpain, a thiol protease, is responsible for the cleavage of several adhesion structural proteins (talin and integrin [Alpha]II[Beta]3) (9,10) and signaling enzymes [focal adhesion kinase (FAK); phosphatidyl inositol
3-kinase (PIK)] (11,12) in spreading and aggregating platelets.