Peroxisomal Disorders

Peroxisomal Disorders

 

Definition

Peroxisomal disorders are a group of congenital (existing from birth) diseases characterized by the absence of normal peroxisomes in the cells of the body. Peroxisomes are special parts (organelles) within a cell that contain enzymes responsible for critical cellular processes, including oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids (plasmalogens), cholesterol, and bile acids, conversion of amino acids into glucose, reduction of hydrogen peroxide by catalase, and prevention of excess synthesis of oxalate (which can form crystals with calcium, resulting in kidney stones). Peroxisomal disorders are subdivided into two major categories. The first are disorders resulting from a failure to form intact, normal peroxisomes, resulting in multiple metabolic abnormalities, which are referred to as peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) or as generalized peroxisomal disorders. The second category includes those disorders resulting from the deficiency of a single peroxisomal enzyme. There are about 25 peroxisomal disorders known, although the number of diseases that are considered to be separate, distinct peroxisomal disorders varies among researchers and health care practitioners.

Description

A cell can contain several hundred peroxisomes, which are round or oval bodies with diameters of about 0.5 micron, that contain proteins that function as enzymes in metabolic processes. By definition, a peroxisome must contain catalase, which is an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide.
Approximately 50 different biochemical reactions occur entirely or partially within a peroxisome. Some of the processes are anabolic, or constructive, resulting in the synthesis of essential biochemical compounds, including bile acids, cholesterol, plasmalogens, and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), which is a long chain fatty acid that is a component of complex lipids, including the membranes of the central nervous system. Other reactions are catabolic, or destructive, and lead to the destruction of some fatty acids, including very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs, fatty acids with more than 22 carbon atoms in their chains), phytanic acid, pipecolic acid, and the prostoglandins. The peroxisome is involved in breaking down VLCFAs to lengths that the body can use or get rid of.
When VLCFAs accumulate due to abnormal functioning of the peroxisomes, they are disruptive to the structure and stability of certain cells, especially those associated with the central nervous system and the myelin sheath, which is the fatty covering of nerve fibers. The peroxisomal disorders that include effects on the growth of the myelin sheath are considered to be part of a group of genetic disorders referred to as leukodystrophies. While metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) usually has its onset in infants or juveniles, there have been reports of its onset in young adults.
There are many other metabolic deficiencies that can occur in those who have peroxisomal disorders, which result in other types of detrimental effects, and together result in the abnormalities associated with the peroxisomal disorders. Unfortunately, it is not known how these abnormalities, and combinations of abnormalities, cause the disabilities seen in those afflicted with the disease.
Peroxisomal disorders form a heterogeneous disease group, with different degrees of severity. Included in the group referred to as PBD are:
  • Zellweger syndrome (ZS), which is usually fatal within the first year of life,
  • neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), which is usually fatal within the first 10 years,
  • infantile Refsum disease (IRD), which is not as devastating as ZS and NALD, as the children with this disorder with time and patience can develop some degree of motor, cognitive, and communication skills, although death generally occurs during the second decade of life.
  • rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP), which in its most severe form is fatal within the first year or two of life. However, survival into the teens has been known to occur. It is characterized by shortening of the proximal limbs (i.e., the legs from knee to foot, and the arms from elbow to hand).
  • Zellweger-like syndrome, which is fatal in infancy, and is known to be a defect of three particular enzymes.
The differences among these disorders are continuous, with overlap between abnormalities. The range of disease abnormalities may be a result of a corresponding range of peroxisome failure; that is, in severe cases of ZS, the failure is nearly complete, while in IRD, there is some degree of peroxisome activity.
In peroxisomal single-enzyme disorders, the peroxisome is intact and functioning, but there is a defect in only one enzymatic process, with only one corresponding biochemical abnormality. However, these disorders can be as severe as those in which peroxisomal activity is nearly or completely absent.
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common of the peroxisomal disorders, affecting about one in 20,000 males. It is estimated that there are about 1,400 people in the United States with the disorder. In X-ALD there is a deficiency in the enzyme that breaks down VLCFAs, which then accumulate in the myelin and adrenal glands. Onset of X-ALD-related neurological symptoms occurs at about five-12 years of age, with death occurring within one to 10 years after onset of symptoms. In addition to physical abnormalities seen in other types of peroxisomal disorders, common symptoms of X-ALD also include behavioral changes such as abnormal withdrawal or aggression, poor memory, dementia, and poor academic performance. Other symptoms are muscle weakness and difficulties with hearing, speech, and vision. As the disease progresses, muscle tone deteriorates, swallowing becomes difficult and the patient becomes comatose. Unless treated with a diet that includes Lorenzo's oil, the disease will result in paralysis, hearing loss, blindness, vegetative state, and death. There are also milder forms of X-ALD: an adult onset ALD that typically begins between the ages of 21 and 35, and a form that is occasionally seen in women who are carriers of the disorder. In addition to X-ALD, there are at least 10 other single-enzyme peroxisomal disorders, each with its own specific abnormalities.

Causes and symptoms

Most peroxisomal disorders are inherited autosomal recessive diseases, with X-ALD as an exception. They occur in all countries, among all races and ethnic groups. They are extremely rare, with frequencies reported at one in 30,000 to one in 150,000, although these numbers are only estimates.
In general, developmental delay, mental retardation, and vision and hearing impairment are common in those who have these disorders. Acquisition of speech appears to be especially difficult, and because of the reduced communication abilities, autism is common in those who live longer. Peroxisomal disorder patients have decreased muscle tone (hypotonia), which in the most severe cases is generalized, while in less severe cases, is usually restricted to the neck and trunk muscles. Sometimes this lack of control is only noticeable by a curved back in the sitting position. Head control and independent sitting is delayed, with most patients unable to walk independently.
Failure to thrive is a common characteristic of patients with peroxisomal disorder, along with an enlarged liver, abnormalities in liver enzyme function, and loss of fats in stools (steatorrhea).
Peroxisomal disorders are also associated with facial abnormalities, including high forehead, frontal bossing (swelling), small face, low set ears, and slanted eyes. These characteristics may not be prominent in some children, and are especially difficult to identify in an infant.

Diagnosis

Since hearing and vision deficiencies may be difficult to identify in infants, peroxisomal disorders are usually detected by observations of failure to thrive, hypotonia, mental retardation, widely open fontanel, abnormalities in liver enzymes, and an enlarged liver. If peroxisomal disorders are suspected, blood plasma assays for VLCFAs, phytanic acid, and pipecolic acid are conducted. Additional tests include plasmalogen biosynthesis potential.

Treatment

For many of the peroxisomal disorders, there is no standard course of treatment, with supportive treatment strategies focusing on alleviation of complications and symptoms. In general, most treatments that are attempted are dietary, whereby attempts are made to artificially correct biochemical abnormalities associated with the disorders. Therapies include supplementation of the diet with antioxidant vitamins, or limitation of intake of fatty acids, especially VLCFAs.
Another area of dietary therapy that is being investigated is the supplementation of the diet with pure DHA, given as early in life as possible, in conjunction with a normal well-balanced diet. Some results have indicated that if given soon enough during development, DHA therapy may prevent some of the devastating consequences of peroxisomal disorders, including brain damage and the loss of vision.
Other treatment strategies include addition of important missing chemicals. For example, in disorders where there is faulty adrenal function, replacement adrenal hormone therapy is used.
Any dietary changes should be monitored biochemically to determine if the supplements are having their desired effects and are not causing additional adverse effects.
Bone marrow transplants may be used to treat X-ALD, and can be effective if done early in the course of the childhood form of the disease.
Physical and psychological therapies are important for all types of peroxisomal disorders.

Alternative treatment

Patients with peroxisomal disorders, and particularly X-ALD, have been treated with a mixture of glycerol trioleate-glycerol trieucate (4:1 by volume), prepared from olive and rapeseed oils, and referred to as Lorenzo's oil (developed by parents of a son, Lorenzo, who had X-ALD, whose story was documented in the 1992 movie, Lorenzo's Oil), to decrease the levels of VLCFA. Other diets that have been tried include dietary supplementation with plasmalogen precursors to increase plasmalogen levels and with cholic acid to normalize bile acids. However, there has been only limited success demonstrated with the use of these treatments. More research is needed to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of these treatment strategies.

Prognosis

Peroxisomal disorders range from life-threatening to cases in which people may function with some degree of mental and motor retardation. As of 2001, there was not yet a cure. Enzyme replacement therapies, including enzyme infusion, transplantation, and gene therapy, may hold promise for future advances in the treatment of these disorders. Research is being conducted to increase scientific understanding of these disorders and to find ways to prevent, treat, and cure them.

Prevention

Unfortunately not enough is yet known about these diseases to develop comprehensive strategies for prevention. Genetic counseling is recommended for known or suspected carriers. As genes are identified that result in the disorders, genetic testing is being developed to identify carriers, who then can manage their reproduction to avoid the possibility of children being born with these deficiencies. As the genetic bases for the disorders are defined, prenatal diagnosis and identification of carriers will be facilitated. For example, for X-ALD, diagnosis can be made from cultured skin fibroblasts or amniotic fluid cells. This allows prenatal diagnosis and carrier identification in 90% of those affected. More recently it has been shown that biochemical diagnosis can be performed through chorionic villi biopsy, a procedure performed very early in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Animal models of ZS and X-ADL have been developed and are providing researchers with methods to define pathogenic mechanisms and to evaluate new therapies.

Key terms

Autosomal recessive inheritance — Two copies of an altered gene located on one of the autosomes must be present for an individual to be affected with the trait or condition determined by that gene:
Autosome — A chromosome not involved in sex determination.
Fontanel — One of the membranous intervals between the uncompleted angles of the parietal and neighboring bones of a fetal or young skull; so called because it exhibits a rhythmical pulsation.
Metabolic — Relating to the chemical changes in living cells.
Organelle — Specialized structure within a cell, which is separated from the rest of the cell by a membrane composed of lipids and proteins, where chemical and metabolic functions take place.

Resources

Periodicals

Gallo, S., et al. "Late Onset MLD With Normal Nerve Conduction Associated With Two Novel Missense Mutations in the ASA Gene." Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry April 2004: 655-658.
Martinez, Manuela. "The Fundamental and Practice of Docosahexanoic Acid Therapy in Peroxisomal Disorders." Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 3 (2000): 101-108.
Martinez, M., E. Vazquez, M. T. Garcia Silva, J. Manzanares, J. M. Bertran, F. Castello, and I. Mougan. "Therapeutic Effects of Docosahexanoic Acid in Patients with Generalized Peroxisomal Disorders." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 (2000): 376s-385s.
Moser, Hugo W. "Molecular Genetics of Peroxisomal Disorders." Frontiers in Bioscience 5 (March 1, 2001): 298-306.
Raymond, G. V. "Peroxisomal Disorders." Current Opinion in Pediatrics 11 (December 1999): 572-576.

Organizations

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH Neurological Institute. P.O. Box 5801 Bethesda, MD 20824. (800) 352-9424. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/index.htm.
National Organization for Rare Disorders. P.O. Box 8923, New Fairfield, CT 06812-8923.

Other

The Peroxisome Website. http://www.peroxisome.org.
References in periodicals archive ?
1995) Human peroxisomal targeting signal-1 receptor restores peroxisomal protein import in cells from patients with fatal peroxisomal disorders.
Cholic acid (Cholbam) is indicated for the treatment of bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects and for peroxisomal disorders, including Zellweger spectrum disorders.
The bile acid also was approved as adjunctive treatment of peroxisomal disorders including Zellweger spectrum disorders in patients who exhibit manifestations of liver disease, steatorrhea, or complications from decreased fat-soluble vitamin absorption.
According to Retrophin, it received the Pediatric PRV when Cholbam was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of pediatric and adult patients suffering from bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for patients with peroxisomal disorders, including Zellweger spectrum disorders.
Retrophin received the Pediatric PRV when Cholbam was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of pediatric and adult patients suffering from bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for patients with peroxisomal disorders (including Zellweger spectrum disorders).
The current classes of inborn errors of metabolism include disorders of protein metabolism, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, lysosomal storage disorders, disorders of lipid metabolism, mitochondrial disorders, peroxisomal disorders and trace metal disorders [5].
analysis ice Essential for confirmation of FAODs Laboratory investigations Tier 3 Plasma very long 1 ml heparin blood, on Essential for diagnosis chain fatty acids ice of X-ALD, pyridoxine - responsive epilepsy and peroxisomal disorders (e.
Rapid analysis of conjugated bile acids in plasma using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry: application for selective screening of peroxisomal disorders.
Glucuronic acid-conjugated dihydroxy fatty acids in the urine of patients with generalized peroxisomal disorders.
He has been involved in the study of adrenoleukodystrophy and other peroxisomal disorders for over 15 years.
A reliable method for high-throughput screening of X-ALD and other peroxisomal disorders has been developed.

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