The study also found that the periaqueductal gray
area of the brain that produces oxytocin was less active in male voles that drank alone.
Mu-opioid receptors exist in highest concentrations in presynaptic neurons in the periaqueductal gray
region and spinal cord and have high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphins.
The researchers found that within 49 thousandths of a second of a recorded cry being played, the periaqueductal gray
" an area deep in the midbrain that has long been linked to urgent, do-or-die behaviours " had blazed to attention, twice as fast as it reacted to dozens of other audio clips tested.
17-19) Previous research has indicated a relation between the CnF and the central areas involved in cardiovascular modulation including the RVLM, NTS, periaqueductal gray
matter, and parabrachial/Kolliker-Fuse complex.
Central sensitization induces changes in sensory input process conduction to the brainstem, especially surrounding the caudate nucleus of trigeminal nerve and periaqueductal gray
matter, leading to chronic paroxysmal migraine.
Regarding mechanism, it is believed that the somatic (as opposed to the drug craving) symptoms of opiate withdrawal in the adult arise from areas of the brainstem called the locus coeruleus and periaqueductal gray
, which express opiate receptors.
The neural signals generated by the bladder and urethra are transmitted to midbrain periaqueductal gray
substance through the spinal cord, then projected to the pontine micturition center and the cerebrum (13).
In one case the findings were atypical with bilateral symmetrical T2WI, FLAIR hyperintensities with restricted diffusion noted in the periphery of mid-brain and periaqueductal gray
matter and also in the ventral aspect of medulla.
Additionally, in the assessment by immunofluorescence for Fos protein on animal brains, we demonstrated that there was an increase of Fos protein expression, when compared to control, in the ventrolateral area of periaqueductal gray
(PAG) (p <0.
The higher level within this system (subsystem II) is represented by the periaqueductal gray
(PAG), ACC, and limbic input structures, such as the hypothalamus, midline thalamus, amygdala, red nucleus, preoptic region, and septum.
We were able to predict the non-linear transition from innocuous to painful perception with high accuracy based on activation in regions such as the periaqueductal gray
that have previously been implicated in central modulation of pain.
Figure-2: FLAIR axial sections; hyperintense symmetrical lesions seen in tegmentum, pons, mesencephalon, periaqueductal gray
matter, hypothalamus, optic tract and the medial thalamus bilaterally.