Following Paul Broca and Paul Topinard, the science of anthropology (anthropologie) was primarily a comparative anatomy of races, the 'natural history of mankind', the universal attempt to display all peoples around the world in a table of racial types.
Inspired by French enthusiasm (personally expressed by Paul Topinard himself in correspondence with the Portuguese group), (26) Cardoso and his friends created in 1887 a scientific society, Sociedade Carlos Ribeiro, and a scientific journal devoted to the natural and social sciences, Revista de Ciencias Naturais e Sociais, where Cardoso would later publish his Goan work.
Paul Topinard, Elements d' anthropologie generale (Paris: Delahaye et Lecrosnier, 1885), pp.
Broca; Paul Topinard, 'Congres des Societe Savantes.
She reminds us that Wharton read Darwin, Spencer, and anthropologists Edward Westermarck and Paul Topinard
, as well as several Darwinian commentators, but in only a few instances can she show direct imprints of their work on Wharton's fiction.