patch test

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patch

 [pach]
a small area differing from the rest of a surface.
Peyer's p's whitish, oval, elevated patches of closely packed lymph follicles in mucous and submucous layers of the small intestine.
salmon patch a salmon-colored nevus flammeus usually found over the eyelids, between the eyes, or on the forehead. It is the most common vascular lesion of infancy, found in 40 per cent of newborns, and usually fades in the first year of life. Called also nevus simplex.
patch test a type of skin test for hypersensitivity in which filter paper or gauze saturated with the substance in question is applied to the skin, usually on the forearm; a positive reaction is reddening or swelling at the site.
Patch test.

patch test

a test of skin sensitiveness: a small piece of paper, tape, or a cup, wet with nonirritating diluted test fluid, is applied to skin of the upper back or upper outer arm and after 48 hours the covered is compared with the uncovered surface; an erythematous reaction with vesicles occurs if the substance causes contact allergy.
See also: photo-patch test.

patch test

n.
A test for allergic sensitivity in which a suspected allergen is applied to the skin on a small surgical pad.

patch test

a skin test for identifying allergens, especially those causing contact dermatitis. The suspected substance (food, pollen, animal fur) is applied to an adhesive patch that is placed on the patient's skin. Another patch, with nothing on it, serves as a control. After a certain period (usually 24 to 48 hours) both patches are removed. If the skin under the suspect patch is red and swollen and the skin under the control area is not, the test result is said to be positive, and the person is probably allergic to that substance. Compare radioallergosorbent test.
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Removing patch tests

patch test

Allergy skin test, contact dermatitis skin test, patch skin test Immunology An epicutaneous test of contact-type–delayed hypersensitivity, which consists of applying a patch with a low dose of an allergen–antigen to an unexposed area of the skin, usually the back, and observing the site 1-2 days later; the most common sensitizing haptens in North America are poison ivy–Toxicodendron radicans, nickel, chromate, paraphenylenediamine–a dye constituent, ethylenediamine–a solvent and emulsifier, local anesthetics–eg, benzocaine, rubber, neomycin, and others; PT materials have been standardized and are available commercially, either as individual allergens, or as batteries of allergens, including those for specific occupations–eg, hairdressers, printers, and others; incorrect PT results are common in the form of false-positives, due to too high concentration of allergens in the patches, misinterpretation of irritant reactions, and generalized erythema of the skin testing site; false-negative results are linked to technical errors and failure to simulate the 'real-world' situation in which the person is exposed to the allergen

patch test

(pach test)
A test of skin sensitiveness: a small piece of paper, tape, or a cup, wet with a dilute solution or suspension of test material, is applied to skin of the upper back or upper outer arm, and after 48 hours the area previously covered is compared with the uncovered surface; an erythematous reaction with vesicles occurs if the substance causes contact allergy.
See also: photo-patch test

patch test

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APPLYING PATCH TEST
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APPLYING PATCH TEST
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APPLYING PATCH TEST
A skin test in which a low concentration of a presumed allergen is applied to the skin beneath an occlusive dressing. The test is the primary method used to determine the presence of allergic contact dermatitis. If the concentration of the agent is too high or an allergy exists to the material used in the dressing, false-positive reactions can occur as a result of local irritation. False-negative reactions may result if the concentration of the suspected allergen is too low, or if the duration of the test is too short. Commercially available, standardized kits to facilitate patch testing include the T.R.U.E. test and Finn Chambers. See: illustration; skin test
illustration

Patch test

A skin test that is done to identify allergens. A suspected substance is applied to the skin. After 24-48 hours, if the area is red and swollen, the test is positive for that substance. If no reaction occurs, another substance is applied. This is continued until the patient experiences an allergic reaction where the irritant was applied to the skin.
Mentioned in: Dermatitis, Skin Lesions

test

trial/experiment assisting diagnosis
  • Allen's test test of arterial occlusion in the foot, i.e. leg elevation (until plantar skin blanches and Doppler sound at dorsalis pedis [DP] pulse is lost) followed by compression of DP pulse (by clinician's thumb) and lowering of leg to dependency; if posterior tibial artery flow is adequate the foot rapidly resumes its normal colour; test is repeated at posterior tibial pulse, to test patency of DP

  • anterior drawer test; ADT; Lachman's test test of stability/integrity of lateral collateral ligaments of ankle joint, i.e. flex knee to >45° (to relax posterior muscle group), stabilize lower tibia (with one hand) whilst grasping posterior aspect of patient's heel (with the other); calcaneum is pulled forward as a simultaneous retrograde force is applied to lower tibia; positive ADT = > 4mm anterior displacement of foot relative to tibia together with positive 'suction sign'

  • Buerger's test test of arterial status of lower limb, i.e. patient reclines supine on couch; leg is elevated (from hip) for 1 minute (whilst patient alternately dorsi- and plantarflexes ankle joint, to drain venous circulation); limb is lowered to dependency or patient stands up (foot shows brief hyperaemia before returning to normal skin colour); time (in seconds) for normal colour return is noted; >20 seconds = inadequate arterial supply; >40 seconds = severe limb ischaemia; note: clinician should note whether cyanosis (rather than brief hyperaemia) occurs on dependency, and duration of cyanosis; persistent dusky red/purple coloration in dependent limb that appears to resolve to normal skin tone on raising limb to horizontal indicates severe arterial compromise

  • Clarke's test diagnostic test of chondromalcia patellae; with the patient supine and the affected knee fully extended, the clinician applies gentle pressure to the patella whilst the patient attempts to contract the quadriceps muscle group; the test is positive if severe patellar pain occurs

  • Coombs test test to predict donor and receiver blood compatibility, i.e. assay for presence/absence of specific antibodies on donor erythrocytes

  • coordination tests tests of cerebellar coordination of lower-limb motor function, i.e. heel-shin test; fingertip test

  • fingertip test test of cerebellar function, i.e. patient repeatedly attempts to place his/her fingertip on tip of assessor's moving finger; alternatively, patient attempts to put tip of his/her index finger alternately on his/her nose then on assessor's moving finger

  • glass test test for meningitis, i.e. test is positive when there is no blanching of a pruritic rash when it is pressed with a glass

  • glucose tolerance test; GTT diagnostic test of diabetes mellitus, and assessment of patients with fasting blood glucose levels just above normal range (i.e. 5.6-6.7 mmol/L), i.e. 75mg glucose is given (as a drink) after starving for 12-14 hours; its rate of blood clearance is monitored over the next 3 hours; in normal patients, there is an immediate and sharp rise in blood glucose which falls during subsequent 2 hours to normal glycaemic levels (i.e. 2.9-5.9 mmol/L); in diabetes/insulin resistance cases, blood glucose levels rise initially to a higher level and do not return to normal range within 2 hours

  • Heaf test test of immunity to tubercle bacillus (tuberculosis [TB]), i.e. subdermal injection of attenuated tuberculin toxin

  • heel-shin test test of cerebellar function, i.e. patient repeatedly places one heel on anterior aspect of other shin and slides heel down to dorsum of foot; inability to perform this test indicates cerebellar dysfunction and other conditions characterized by loss of motor coordination

  • interdigital test reduced blunt/sharp discrimination, paraesthesia, hyper-/hypoaesthesia of interdigital skin at toe cleft affected by neuritis/Morton's neuroma

  • Jack's test passive dorsiflexion of hallux at first metatarsophalangeal joint in weight-bearing foot

  • Kelikian push-up test intraoperative check of adequate surgical correction of lesser-toe deformity, i.e. elevation of head of relevant metatarsal with thumb pressure

  • Lachman's test see test, anterior drawer

  • Mantoux test, tuberculin test screening test for exposure to tuberculosis (TB); administration of an intradermal dose of tuberculosis antigen (tuberculin) to the skin of the forearm; a localised, small, firm inflammatory skin reaction developing within 2 days shows positive exposure to tuberculosis

  • Mulder's test diagnostic test for Morton's neuroma, i.e. simultaneous lateral compression across metatarsal heads + thumb pressure at affected plantar web space in a foot with symptoms of plantar digital neuritis (Morton's neuroma); positive result (i.e. induction of characteristic symptoms of a nerve entrapment pain, and examiner's awareness of a fluid thrill [or click] within the palpated tissue) indicates neuritis or neuroma

  • Nobel's test test for iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome, i.e. palpation of lateral tibial condyle causes ITB pain

  • Ober's test test for iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome, i.e. excessive tightness/tension on palpation of the ITB

  • patch test; skin test test of hypersensitivity, i.e. application of a range of potential sensitizing agents to skin (e.g. back, ulnar aspect of arm); degree of inflammatory reaction (provoked by test agents) is compared with a control (innocuous substance) and 'read'/assessed after 48-96 hours

  • pole test test to estimate foot systolic pressures in limbs with arterial calcification, i.e. with patient supine, leg is elevated until Doppler foot pulses cease, and elevation height (in cm) from apex of hallux to bench is noted and multiplied by 7.35

  • Romberg's test test comparing amount of body sway of an erect patient with eyes closed and eyes open; test is positive if patient shows loss of balance/increased tendency to sway when standing with eyes closed

  • screening test any test that categorizes by predetermined characteristic/property

  • single-leg raise test; tiptoe test test of tendo Achilles (TA), tibialis posterior and peroneal integrity/function, i.e. patient stands on one leg and weight-bears on tiptoe; patient with TA damage will not be able to rise normally to tiptoe on affected side; with TA rupture, patient will not be able to rise up on to tiptoe on the affected limb at all; heel pain during single-leg raise is indicative of Sever's disease see sever's

  • skin test see test, patch

  • talar tilt test test of integrity of lateral collateral ligament of the ankle, calcaneofibular ligament and tibialis posterior tendon, i.e. with the ankle joint at neutral (0° dorsiflexion) the calcaneum is passively inverted by the examiner; if the lateral collateral ligament is damaged (e.g. anterior talofibular ligament rupture) excessive talar excursion occurs; tissue dimpling inferior to the lateral malleolus indicates rupture of the calcaneofibular ligament; greater than expected talar eversion and flattening of the medial longitudinal arch indicate tibialis dysfunction

  • Thompson's test test of Achilles tendon function, i.e. with the patient lying prone, the posterior calf muscle group is squeezed, causing ankle joint plantarflexion; the foot does not plantarflex in total Achilles tendon rupture

  • thumb roll test test for 'runner's knee', i.e. the knee is flexed by 30-40° and the examiner's thumb rolled across the medial aspect of the patella, causing a painful 'snap' or 'click', and detection of a fibrous ridge/'shelf' at anterior knee compartment

  • Trendelenburg's test test of the quality of venous filling time, and quality of venous drainage in the leg, i.e. carried out as Buerger's test, but the time (in seconds) taken for the dorsal foot veins to refill and the direction of blood flow into the dorsal foot veins is noted; refill from proximal to distal indicates venous backflow and vein valve incompetence

  • Tuberculin test see Mantoux test

  • urea breath test test to detect Helicobacter pylori gastritis, or confirm its eradication, i.e. by analysis of exhaled breath

  • Valsalva's test test to detect autonomic neuropathy, i.e. the patient exhales into an empty plastic syringe (the other end of which is connected to a manometer to be maintained at 40mmHg) for 10 seconds, and changes in heart rate are noted (i.e. maximum expiratory heart rate and minimum heart rate after test cessation), and compared as a ratio; ratio of <1:10 indicates autonomic neuropathy (normal = >1:21)

  • vertical stress test test of plantar plate rupture, i.e. application of vertical stress to metatarsal head; translocation (i.e. > 2mm dorsal elevation) of base of toe in relation to dorsum of metatarsal head indicates plantar plate rupture

  • vibration test test of peripheral sensory function (assessing pacinian corpuscle function), i.e. application of vibration stimuli (from activated 128Hz tuning fork or neuraesthesiometer) to bony prominences (e.g. medial aspect of first metatarsophalangeal joint, lateral aspect of fifth metatarsal styloid process, medial and lateral malleoli, tibial tuberosity); vibrational awareness is reduced in the elderly and may be lost in diabetic distal sensory neuropathy, correlating with reduced pain awareness

patch test

(pach test)
A test of skin sensitivity; a small piece of paper, tape, or a cup, wet with a dilute solution or suspension of test material, is applied to skin of the upper back or upper outer arm, and after 48 hours the area previously covered is compared with the uncovered surface; an erythematous reaction with vesicles occurs if the substance causes contact allergy.

patch test,

n a skin test for identifying allergens, especially those causing contact dermatitis.

patch

a small area differing from the rest of a surface.

patch grafting
see patch graft.
serosal patch
creation of an adhesion between serosal surfaces in order to cover a defect or perforation of bowel, often accomplished by suturing another section of bowel over the area.
patch test
a test of delayed type hypersensitivity in the skin used in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The substance suspected of being the cause is applied to the skin, either under a dressing (closed patch test) or without a covering (open patch test). The site is examined at regular intervals for up to 5 days to detect any inflammatory reaction of the skin.
References in periodicals archive ?
The laser texture scanner MPD was found to have a higher correlation to the MTD from sand patch tests.
Average MTD from sand patch tests compared with average ETD and percent difference for Ames laser texture scanner, Dynatest laser profiler at 25 mph speed, and CT meter Sand patch Laser scanner MTD ETD mm mm (%) 50 Grit Sandpaper 0.
Uter W, Geier J, Frosch P Schnuch A: Contact allergy to fragrances: current patch test results (2005-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology.
An additional shortcoming of the patch test is that it only indicates minimum and maximum values rather than actual values.
A final shortcoming of the patch test is that the acidic fluid requires mercury nitrate as one of the titrants.
These MPD values are also transformed into MTD using Eqn (5) per ASTM E2157 (2005) so that they can be compared to measurements from the sand patch tests and other methods.
Similarly, sand patch tests cannot accurately predict the texture of very rough or porous surfaces because even distribution of sand or glass spheres may not be possible.
Wilkinson JD, Hambly EM, Wilkinson DS: Comparison of patch test results in two adjacent areas of England.
Devos SA, Mulder JJ, van der Valk PG: The relevance of positive patch test reactions in chronic otitis externa.
It is almost as good as doing our patch test," he said.
Wantke F, Hemmer W, Jarisch R, Gotz M: Patch test reactions in children, adults and the elderly.
An important distinction is that neomycin is included on commonly used commercial patch test kits such as the T.