The respiratory viruses were influenza A and B, coronavirus, parainfluenzavirus
, rhinovirus, RSV A and B, adenovirus, enterovirus, parechovirus, and bocavirus.
Among the enveloped RNA viruses we chose parainfluenzavirus
3 (Para 3) and RSV--both associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia.
Microarray detection of human parainfluenzavirus
4 infection associated with respiratory failure in an immunocompetent adult.
In addition, serum samples were tested for antibodies against influenza A, B, and C; rhinovirus A, B, and C; parainfluenzavirus
1, 2, 3, and 4; respiratory syncytial virus A and B; human metapneumovirus; coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1; and adenovirus.
016 HRV negative 64 0 None 74 NT HRV negative 109 0 PIV1, HRV * HBoV1, human bocavirus 1; NPA, nasopharyngeal aspirate; NT, not tested; HRV, human rhinovirus; HRV negative, tested by monoplex PCR only; PIV1, parainfluenzavirus
type 1; ND, no data available; AdV, adenovirus; none, negative by multiplex PCR.
Specimens positive for pH1N1 virus were also tested by specific quantitative PCR for the following common respiratory viruses: adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenzavirus
(PIV) 1-4, enterovirus, rhinovirus, parechovirus, and human coronavirus (HCoV; strains OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU1).
In addition to its Numax clinical program, MedImmune is also studying a vaccine that could potentially prevent both RSV and parainfluenzavirus
type 3 (PIV-3).
Respiratory specimens were tested by bacterial culture and multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR, Seeplex RV12 Kit; Seegene, Seoul, South Korea) for the following respiratory viruses: influenza A/B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, coronavirus (OC43/HKU1 and 229E/NL63), adenovirus, parainfluenzavirus
, and human metapneumovirus (2).
MedImmune's product development efforts currently underway for RSV prevention include a broad Phase 3 clinical trial program for Numax(TM), which the company hopes to bring to market as an improvement to Synagis, and a Phase 1 program for a vaccine that could potentially prevent both RSV and parainfluenzavirus
type 3 (PIV-3).
25%) was comparable to that of human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus within this group and considerably less frequent than that of parainfluenzavirus
In the study, entitled "Effects of Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Antigen Insertion in Two 3-Prime Proximal Genome Positions of Bovine/Human Parainfluenzavirus
Type 3 on Virus Replication and Immunogenicity," animals immunized with a combination of either PIV3 and RSV or PIV3 and hMPV were protected from the relevant viruses in challenge studies and produced neutralizing antibodies against the viruses.
To screen for human parainfluenzavirus
type 4 and HCoV OC43, RNA extraction and reverse transcription were performed as previously described (7).