We perform routine diagnostic real-time PCR for all patients evaluated for respiratory disease by laboratory developed tests for 17 targets, including adenovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus, enterovirus, metapneumovirus, influenza, parainfluenzavirus
, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (5).
The respiratory viruses were influenza A and B, coronavirus, parainfluenzavirus
, rhinovirus, RSV A and B, adenovirus, enterovirus, parechovirus, and bocavirus.
Among the enveloped RNA viruses we chose parainfluenzavirus
3 (Para 3) and RSV--both associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia.
Microarray detection of human parainfluenzavirus
4 infection associated with respiratory failure in an immunocompetent adult.
The Paramyxovirinae include the genera Parainfluenzavirus
(such as Sendai virus), Rubulavirus (such as mumps in humans), Morbillivirus (such as measles in humans), and Henipavirus (such as Hendra virus).
In addition, serum samples were tested for antibodies against influenza A, B, and C; rhinovirus A, B, and C; parainfluenzavirus
1, 2, 3, and 4; respiratory syncytial virus A and B; human metapneumovirus; coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1; and adenovirus.
016 HRV negative 64 0 None 74 NT HRV negative 109 0 PIV1, HRV * HBoV1, human bocavirus 1; NPA, nasopharyngeal aspirate; NT, not tested; HRV, human rhinovirus; HRV negative, tested by monoplex PCR only; PIV1, parainfluenzavirus
type 1; ND, no data available; AdV, adenovirus; none, negative by multiplex PCR.
Specimens positive for pH1N1 virus were also tested by specific quantitative PCR for the following common respiratory viruses: adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenzavirus
(PIV) 1-4, enterovirus, rhinovirus, parechovirus, and human coronavirus (HCoV; strains OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU1).
Respiratory specimens were tested by bacterial culture and multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR, Seeplex RV12 Kit; Seegene, Seoul, South Korea) for the following respiratory viruses: influenza A/B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, coronavirus (OC43/HKU1 and 229E/NL63), adenovirus, parainfluenzavirus
, and human metapneumovirus (2).
25%) was comparable to that of human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus within this group and considerably less frequent than that of parainfluenzavirus
To screen for human parainfluenzavirus
type 4 and HCoV OC43, RNA extraction and reverse transcription were performed as previously described (7).
Characterization of a parainfluenzavirus
isolated from a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).