Pap smear


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Related to Pap smear: Cervical cancer

smear

 [smēr]
a specimen for microscopic study, the material being spread thinly and unevenly across the slide with a swab or loop, or with the edge of another slide.
Smears from opaque thick liquids or semisolids, such as stool, can be made using a swab to sample and smear the material. From Mahon and Manuselis, 1995.
Pap smear (Papanicolaou smear) see papanicolaou test.

Pap smear

a smear of vaginal or cervical cells obtained for cytological study.
Synonym(s): Papanicolaou smear

Pap smear

(păp)
n.
A test for cancer, especially of the female genital tract, in which a smear of exfoliated cells is specially stained and examined under a microscope for pathological changes. Also called Pap test.

Pap smear, Pap test

Pap smear

Papanicolaou test, pap test Gynecology A test in which cells from the uterine cervix and endocervix are sampled, spread on a glass slide, stained, and interpreted by a cytotechnologist or pathologist based on the Bethesda System Abnormal values The PS is the 'gold standard' method for early detection of HPV, herpes, trichomonad infections, CIN/dysplasia, cervical CA Accuracy PS interpretation is a subjective art based on experience of the screening cytotechnologist or pathologist; in good labs, error rate–false negative is 5%–15%. See Bethesda System. Cf Papanicolaou classification.

smear

(smer) [Old English. smerian, to anoint]
1. In bacteriology, material spread on a surface, as a microscopic slide or a culture medium.
2. Material obtained from infected matter spread over solid culture media.
3. Cellular material obtained from a body structure by swabbing, gently scraping, or scratching.
Enlarge picture
PREPARATION OF BLOOD SMEAR
Enlarge picture
PREPARATION OF BLOOD SMEAR

blood smear

A drop of (anticoagulated) whole blood spread thinly on a glass microscope slide so that blood cell types can be examined, counted, and characterized. Synonym: peripheral blood smear

Procedure: The slide must be grease-free. It is cleaned with alcohol, rinsed in warm water, and wiped clean with a lint-free towel or lens paper.A small drop of blood is placed on the slide; the end of another slide (spreader slide) is placed against the first slide at a 45° angle and pulled back against the drop of blood so that the drop spreads between the point of contact of the two slides. Then the spreader slide is pushed forward against the first slide; the blood will form an even, thin smear. The slide is dried by waving it in the air; it should not be heated. The blood smear is covered with Wright's stain and allowed to stand 2 min. An equal amount of distilled water or buffer solution is added and mixed uniformly. It is allowed to stand 5 min. The stain is gently washed off and the slide is allowed to dry.

See: illustrationillustration

buccal smear

A sample of cells taken from the mucosa lining the cheek for chromosomal or other studies.

Pap smear

Papanicolaou test.

peripheral blood smear

Synonym: blood smear

Pap smear

A popular term for the cervical smear test. A method of screening women for the earliest signs of cancer of the neck (cervix) of the womb. A wooden or plastic spatula is used gently to scrape some surface cells off the inner lining of the cervix and these are then spread on a microscope slide, stained and examined by a pathologist skilled in CYTOLOGY. (George Nicholas Papanicolaou, 1884–1962, Greek-born American anatomist).

Pap smear

A screening test for precancerous and cancerous cells on the cervix. This simple test is done during a routine pelvic exam and involves scraping cells from the cervix.
Mentioned in: DES Exposure

Papanicolaou,

George N., Greek-U.S. physician, anatomist, and cytologist, 1883-1962.
Papanicolaou examination
Papanicolaou smear - Synonym(s): Pap smear
Papanicolaou smear test - Synonym(s): Pap test
Papanicolaou stain - a multichromatic stain used in cancer screening, especially of gynecologic smears.
Papanicolaou test - Synonym(s): Pap test
Pap smear - vaginal or cervical cells obtained for cytological study. Synonym(s): Papanicolaou smear
Pap test - examination of cells stained with Papanicolaou stain. Synonym(s): Papanicolaou smear test; Papanicolaou test
References in periodicals archive ?
In 2009, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended that Pap smears, which screen for cervical cancer, begin at age 21.
Many patients have not fulfilled Pap smear criteria, and care must be taken to operate within the national Pap smear guidelines and not to perform them on every woman requesting a Pap smear, so that the budget is appropriately spent.
She underscored the importance of regular screening, including routine pap smear and HPV test, mammogram, self-breast examination, staying healthy with good diet and exercise, complying with medications and of educating oneself of her own condition.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) tests that use self-collected vaginal samples are more sensitive than clinically performed Pap smears for detecting precancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer, a population-based randomized trial conducted in Mexico indicates.
Convinced that affordable Pap smears were available, the team needed to collect data on Pap smear rates in order to plan strategies to reduce the cervical cancer mortality disparity by promoting Pap smear screening.
For Pap smear screening to reach 90% sensitivity, you need have three negative Pap smears in a row, because false negatives with this test are common.
It showed that giving a woman both tests rather than a Pap smear alone increased the chance of early cancer detection.
In its 1999 report, Lesbian Health: Current Assessment and Directions for the Future, the Institute of Medicine emphasized that more data were needed on STIs, Pap smear screening, and risk for cervical cancer in lesbians (3).
Mindy Smith and her colleagues at Michigan State University, East Lansing, in the Periodic Abstinence From Pap (PAP) Smear Study: Women's Perceptions of Pap Smear Screening.
Currently, the Pap smear requires evaluation by trained cytotechnologists to identify the specimens at high risk of cervical cancer.
This significant reduction in mortality was due to the effectiveness of early screening from the Pap Smear.