urination

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urination

 [u″rĭ-na´shun]
the discharge of urine from the bladder; urine from the kidneys is passed in spurts every few seconds along the ureters to the bladder, where it collects and later is passed to the outside via the urethra. Called also micturition and voiding.

The Urinary Process. Urination is a complex process controlled by muscles of the bladder and sphincter mechanism and by modulatory centers in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The detrusor muscle is a complex meshwork of interlaced smooth muscle bundles that contract in a way that squeezes urine from the bladder vesicle. The sphincter mechanism consists of smooth muscle in the bladder neck and proximal urethra, a striated muscle sphincter consisting of slow twitch muscle fibers in the urethral wall, and periurethral muscles that are a component of the pelvic floor muscles. The detrusor relaxes during bladder filling to accommodate increasing volumes at a low pressure, and the sphincter remains tightly closed. During urination, the detrusor contracts and the sphincter mechanism relaxes, allowing smooth outflow of urine.



As the bladder fills, modulatory centers in the brain prevent the occurrence of contractions. Meanwhile, the sphincter mechanism remains closed under autonomic and somatic nervous system control. During urination, the inhibition of contractions is removed and a reflex originates in the pontine micturition center. That causes the detrusor muscle to contract and the sphincter mechanism to relax. The location of the final output of central nervous system impulses to and from the bladder and sphincter is the sacral micturition center, located in spinal segments 2, 3, and 4, which must be intact for contraction to occur. Injury to the pontine micturition center will compromise the smooth coordination between sphincter mechanism and detrusor muscle, and injury to the brain will affect the volitional control of urine (bladder stability). See also urinary incontinence.

u·ri·na·tion

(yūr'i-nā'shŭn),
The passing of urine.
Synonym(s): miction, micturition (1) , uresis

urination

/uri·na·tion/ (u″rĭ-na´shun) the discharge of urine.

urination

[yoo͡r′inā′shən]
Etymology: Gk, ouron + L, atus, process
the act of passing urine. Also called micturition, voiding.

u·ri·na·tion

(yūr'i-nā'shŭn)
The passing of urine.
Synonym(s): miction, micturition (1) , uresis.

urination

the discharge of urine from the bladder; called also voiding of urine and micturition. Urine from the kidneys is passed every few seconds along the ureters to the bladder, where it collects until voided. During the act of urination the urine passes from the bladder to the outside via the urethra.

difficult urination
the bladder is continually full; the animal is straining to urinate, often grunting, but producing only a thin stream, often under great pressure. Called also dysuria, strangury.
dribbling urination
a steady, intermittent passage of small volumes of urine, sometimes precipitated by a change in posture or increase in intra-abdominal pressure, reflecting inadequate or lack of sphincter control. Seen with ectopic ureters and in paralysis of bladder. See also dribblers.
inappropriate urination
see inappropriate micturition.
increased urination frequency
if output of urine per urination is reduced the increased frequency is probably related to irritation in the tract due to cystitis or urethritis.
painful urination
dysuria; frequent passage of small amounts of urine with grunting and maintaining posture for some time afterwards.
submissive urination
an expression of behavioral submission by dogs.

Patient discussion about urination

Q. protien in urine what are the causes and preventions

A.

Q. How you stop urinating frequently? I don't have any conditions that make me urinate often. I simply drink lots of water... Is there some trick I can employ so that I can still drink lots of water but not have to go to the bathroom so frequently?

A. I only drink water and green tea, Thanks.

Q. Today doctor removed my stunt of kidney. It inflamate while urination.. till How long i will feel like this?

A. You should consult your doctor, since instruments in the kidney and urinary tracts can cause infections (even after removing them), that may cause symptoms like you describe.

More discussions about urination
References in periodicals archive ?
Gonococcal urethritis causes painful urination and discharge, although approximately 25% of men have no symptoms.
Bacteria in the urinary tract cause infections and the prominent symptom is usually painful urination.
Less common: Stomach ulcers, GI bleeding, loss of appetite, hepatitis, gallbladder attacks, painful urination, poor kidney function, kidney inflammation, blood in the urine, dizziness, fainting, and nervousness.
Symptoms may include sudden, severe pain and tenderness in the lower left abdomen, nausea, vomiting, chills and fever, changes in bowel habits, and even painful urination.
Symptoms that can indicate prostate cancer - or a benign condition - include frequent urination, especially at night; inability to urinate; painful urination and ejaculation; blood in urine or semen; frequent pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, thighs.
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland that results in urinary frequency and urgency, burning or painful urination (dysuria), and pain in the lower back and genital area, among other symptoms.
Victims might report painful urination or defecation.
In men it causes painful urination and a mucoid discharge, which are often misdiagnosed as symptoms of gonorrhea.
Other signs can include painful urination, increased frequency of urination, a feeling of needing to urinate but not being able to do so, and chronic bladder inflammation from recurrent urinary tract infections.
In people being treated for urinary incontinence other side effects include: urinary tract infection, painful urination, and/or inability to empty your bladder on your own.
Symptoms included vulvar pain and painful urination in all patients, fever in 89%, pharyngitis in 67%, cough in 63%, and headache in 57%.