Researchers selected 20 patients ages 17-81 (10 males/10 females) with confirmed joint damage and cartilage injuries, diagnosed with imaging/scoping with low to high pain scales
Scales: This area provides descriptions and links to commonly used scales, such as numeric pain scales
, to help assess patients and improve outcomes.
Paediatric nurses were chosen as reviewers because they are familiar with pain assessment in infants and use a range of pain scales
in their clinical work (Ho et al, 1996).
Degree of postoperative pain was evaluated 6 times/d for 4 days by use of 3 methods: an electronic perch for assessment of weight-bearing load differential of the pelvic limbs, 4 numeric rating pain scales
for assessment of pain (all of which involved the observer in the same room as the bird), and analysis of video-recorded (observer absent) partial ethograms for bird activity and posture.
Verbal and written instructions regarding the pain scales
and pain management at home had been provided prior to the GA.
Following 12 weeks of twice weekly yoga or massage therapy sessions (20 min each) both therapy groups versus the control group had a greater decrease on depression, anxiety and back and leg pain scales
and a greater increase on a relationship scale.
Most pain scales
require language or cognitive skills but pain scales
have been designed specifically for people with advanced dementia, eg the Abbey pain scale
For example, the pain scales
have Chinese faces and characters.
A recent publication shows that over the decades, 28 separate pain scales
have been developed and published for assessing lower back pain (Longo, Loppini, Denaro, Mafrulli, & Denaro, 2010).
After the therapy program, there were statistically significant decreases in both the VAS and the WOMAC pain scales
in all patients (p<0.
The UGC narrowed their decision down to two potential pain scales
: the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) (Figure 3) (Gelinas, Fillion, & Puntillo, 2009) and the Behavioral Pain Scale
(BPS) (Gelinas, Fillion, Puntillo, Viens, & Fortier, 2006; Payen et al.
Several pain scales
are available, the most simple being the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Verbal Numerical Scale (VNS).