The authors also noted that "the data used in this study were only collected in situations of stable and normal respiration under general anesthesia," and "that the limitations affecting the prediction of the PaCO2
values are in accordance with the condition of the patient.
Blue bloater' phenotype is characterized by a total lung capacity (TLC) less than 120 percent predicted, PaO2 of less than 65 mm Hg, a PaCO2
greater than 45 mm Hg, body weight greater than 110 percent predicted, a recent history of peripheral edema, and a chronic cough lasting for at least three months per year for two years.
levels are deliberately allowed to rise to levels as high as 100 torr.
Tidal hacim ve PaCO2
degiskenligi, SIPPV, SIMV ya da PSV solutma bicemlerinin herhangi biri ile VG'nin birlikte kullanildigi durumlarda, soz konusu yontemlerin tek baslarina kullanildigi durumlarina gore daha az olmaktadir (1).
The study also showed that ETCO2, measured by Microstream(R) capnography has good correlation with PACO2
, and is reliable in severe lung disease.
Thus, an arterial sample having a Pa02 of 100 mmHg and a PaCO2
of 40 mmHg will exhibit an increase in P02 and a decrease in PCO2, with a slight increase in pH.
Alkalemia => PaCO2
in normal range => HCO3- increased =>Uncompensated Metabolic Alkalosis Advanced Assessment.
Some patients have lung disease or other respiratory pathology that chronically limits their ability to achieve a minute ventilation high enough to keep their PaCO2
in a normal range and their body compensates for the high PaCO2
and low pH by allowing the kidneys to retain more of the alkalotic bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) to neutralize the acidic CO2 and bring the pH back toward the normal 7.
Metabolic Alkalosis - Clinical Manifestations cardiac dysrhythmias seizures; confusion; muscle twitching, agitation >pH;>HC03; normal PaCo2
or elevated if compensation occurs
Experimentally, temperature, PaCO2
, minute ventilation and inspiratory flow magnitude and profile strongly influence VILI expression even as the same PEEP and tidal volume are applied.
Acid-Base Assessment also includes Ventilation assessment as the PaCO2
is the primary indicator of "respiratory" acid-base disturbances and ventilation.
56 mm Hg PaO2 58 mm Hg HCO3 51 mEq/L Electrolytes/Other Analytes Na 150 mEq/L Cl 80 mEq/L K 2.